XML interview questions for experienced/XML Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

Explain About The Mustunderstand Attribute?

This attribute indicates whether the header is optional or mandatory for the recipient to process. If you add mustUnderstand =”1” to the child element of the header element then it states that the header element must be processed otherwise it leads to failure.

Explain About The Actor Element?


A SOAP message has to travel a very long distance between its client and server but during the process a part of the message may be intended to be deployed to another destination which is made possible by the SOAP elements actor attribute which address the header element to a particular location.

Explain About The Encoding Style Attribute?

This is used to define the data types in the document. Any SOAP element may use this format and it gets implemented on the child and contents of the SOAP. SOAP element will never have a default encoding.

Explain About The Syntax Rules In Soap?

Some of the important syntax rules are as follows
1) SOAP should be coded in XML.
2) SOAP envelope should be used for SOAP message.
3) A SOAP encoding namespace must be used by SOAP.
4) A DTD reference and a XML processing instruction should not be contained.

Explain The Difference Between Rpc And Local Calls?

An important difference between Remote call procedure and local call is that remote call can fail often and this occurs without the knowledge of the user. Local calls are easily handled. Another main difficulty lies with the code writing capability because it is written in a low level language.

Explain About Message Passing In Rpc?


RPC is very friendly in implementing the client to server interaction model which makes it very prominent. When the server is interacting and searching for information the client side messaging is blocked and server activity goes on. RPC has huge pool of protocols which at times make it difficult to work with. Client server interaction can be best achieved by RPC.

State Some Disadvantages Due To The Usage Of Soap?

1) SOAP is much slower than middleware technologies.

2) Due to the usage of HTTP for transporting messages and not the defined ESB or WS-Addressing interaction of parties over a message is fixed.

3) Information regarding the usability of HTTP for different purposes is not present which makes the application protocol level problematic.

What Are The Advantages Which A User Can Get When He Uses Soap?

• SOAP by passes all firewalls thus making the process easier.
• It has huge collection of protocols
• It is platform and language independent
• Simplicity and extensible nature makes it the most wanted

Explain About The Role Of Xml In Soap?

XML is chosen as a standard format because it was already in use by many large companies and immensely due to its open source nature. A wide variety of tools are available on shelves which ease the process of transition to SOAP. XML can significantly reduce the speed and efficiency but binary XML is being considered as a format for future.

Explain About Remote Call Procedure?


Remote call procedure is considered as a very important function in SOAP. In RCP a user (node) sends a request to another node (server) where the information is processes and sent to the user. It immediately sends message across the network.

Give An Example About The Functioning Of Soap?

Consider a real estate database with huge data ranges. If a user wants to search about a particular term, the message with all the required features such as price, availability, place, etc will be returned to the user in an XML formatted document which the user can integrate into third party site for additional performance.

Explain About Soap?

SOAP acts as a medium to provide basic messaging framework. On these basic messaging frameworks abstract layers are built. It transfers messages across the board in different protocols; it also acts as a medium to transmit XML based messages over the network.

What Is The Scope Of An Xml Namespace Declaration?

The scope of an XML namespace declaration is that part of an XML document to which the declaration applies. An XML namespace declaration remains in scope for the element on which it is declared and all of its descendants, unless it is overridden or undeclared on one of those descendants.

How Can I Declare Xml Namespaces So That All Elements And Attributes Are In Their Scope?

XML namespace declarations that are made on the root element are in scope for all elements and attributes in the document. This means that an easy way to declare XML namespaces is to declare them only on the root element.

Does The Scope Of An Xml Namespace Declaration Ever Include The Dtd?

No.
XML namespaces can be declared only on elements and their scope consists only of those elements and their descendants. Thus, the scope can never include the DTD.

How Do I Create Documents That Use Xml Namespaces?

The same as you create documents that don’t use XML namespaces. If you’re currently using Notepad on Windows or emacs on Linux, you can continue using Notepad or emacs. If you’re using an XML editor that is not namespace-aware, you can also continue to use that, as qualified names are legal names in XML documents and xmlns attributes are legal attributes. And if you’re using an XML editor that is namespace-aware, it will probably provide features such as automatically declaring XML namespaces and keeping track of prefixes and the default XML namespace for you.

What Software Is Needed To Process Xml Namespaces?

From a document author’s perspective, this is generally not a relevant question. Most XML documents are written in a specific XML language and processed by an application that understands that language. If the language uses an XML namespace, then the application will already use that namespace — there is no need for any special XML namespace software.

How Do Applications Process Documents That Use Xml Namespaces?

Applications process documents that use XML namespaces in almost exactly the same way they process documents that don’t use XML namespaces. For example, if a namespace-unaware application adds a new sales order to a database when it encounters a Sales Order element, the equivalent namespace-aware application does the same. The only difference is that the namespace-aware application:
* Might need to check for xmlns attributes and parse qualified names. Whether it does this depends on whether such processing is already done by lower-level software, such as a namespace-aware DOM implementation.
* Uses universal (two-part) names instead of local (one-part) names.

How Do I Use Xml Namespaces With Sax 2.0?

SAX 2.0 primarily supports XML namespaces through the following methods: * startElement and endElement in the ContentHandler interface return namespace names (URIs) and local names as well as qualified names. * getValue, getType, and getIndex in the Attributes interface can retrieve attribute information by namespace name (URI) and local name as well as by qualified name.

Can An Application Be Both Namespace-aware And Namespace-unaware?


Yes.
However, there is generally no reason to do this. The reason is that most applications understand a particular XML language, such as one used to transfer sales orders between companies. If the element type and attribute names in the language belong to an XML namespace, the application must be namespace-aware; if not, the application must be namespace-unaware.

For a few applications, being both namespace-aware and namespace-unaware makes sense. For example, a parser might choose to redefine validity in terms of universal names and have both namespace-aware and namespace-unaware validation modes. However, such applications are uncommon.

What Does A Namespace-aware Application Do When It Encounters An Error?

The XML namespaces recommendation does not specify what a namespace-aware application does when it encounters a document that does not conform to the recommendation. Therefore, the behavior is application-dependent.

For example, the application could stop processing, post an error to a log and continue processing, or ignore the error.

What Is A Qualified Name?

A qualified name is a name of the following form. It consists of an optional prefix and colon, followed by the local part, which is sometimes known as a local name.
prefix:local-part
–OR–
local-part

What Happens If There Is No Prefix On An Element Type Name?


If a default XML namespace declaration is in scope, then the element type name is in the default XML namespace. Otherwise, the element type name is not in any XML namespace.

What About Non-xml Resources?

You can use the XPointer Framework with non-XML resources. This is especially effective when your resource is backed by some kind of a DBMS, or when you want to query a data model, such as RDF, and not the XML syntax of a representation of that data model. However, please note that the authoratitive interpretation of the fragment identifier is determined by the Internet Media Type. If you want to opt-in for XPointer, then you can always create publish your own Internet Media Type with IANA and specify that it supports the XPointer Framework for some kind of non-XML resource. In this case, you are going to need to declare your own XPointer schemes as well.

What Xpointer Schemes Are Supported In This Release?

The XPointer integration distributions support shorthand pointers.
In addition, they bundle support for at last the following XPointer schemes:
* xmlns()
* element()
* xpath() - This is not a W3C defined XPointer scheme since W3C has not published an XPointer sheme for XPath.

What Three Essential Components Of Security Does The Xml Signatures Provide?

authentication, message integrity, and non-repudiation. In addition to signature information, an XML Signature can also contain information describing the key used to sign the content.

Xlink Markup Design

Link markup needs to be recognized reliably by XLink applications in order to be traversed and handled properly. XLink uses the mechanism described in the Namespaces in XML Recommendation [XML Names] to accomplish recognition of the constructs in the XLink vocabulary.

Does Xml Let Me Make Up My Own Tags?

No, it lets you make up names for your own element types. If you think tags and elements are the same thing you are already in considerable trouble: read the rest of this question carefully.

How Do I Create My Own Document Type?

Document types usually need a formal description, either a DTD or a Schema. Whilst it is possible to process well-formed XML documents without any such description, trying to create them without one is asking for trouble. A DTD or Schema is used with an XML editor or API interface to guide and control the construction of the document, making sure the right elements go in the right places.

Creating your own document type therefore begins with an analysis of the class of documents you want to describe: reports, invoices, letters, configuration files, credit-card verification requests, or whatever. Once you have the structure correct, you write code to express this formally, using DTD or Schema syntax.

Can A Root Element Type Be Explicitly Declared In The Dtd?

No. This is done in the document's Document Type Declaration, not in the DTD.

How Do I Get Xml Into Or Out Of A Database?

Ask your database manufacturer: they all provide XML import and export modules to connect XML applications with databases. In some trivial cases there will be a 1:1 match between field names in the database table and element type names in the XML Schema or DTD, but in most cases some programming will be required to establish the desired match. This can usually be stored as a procedure so that subsequent uses are simply commands or calls with the relevant parameters. In less trivial, but still simple, cases, you could export by writing a report routine that formats the output as an XML document, and you could import by writing an XSLT transformation that formatted the XML data as a load file.

Can I Encode Mathematics Using Xml ?

Yes, if the document type you use provides for math, and your users' browsers are capable of rendering it. The mathematics-using community has developed the MathML Recommendation at the W3C, which is a native XML application suitable for embedding in other DTDs and Schemas. It is also possible to make XML fragments from other DTDs, such as ISO 12083 Math, or OpenMath, or one of your own making. Browsers which display math embedded in SGML existed for many years (eg DynaText, Panorama, Multidoc Pro), and mainstream browsers are now rendering MathML. David Carlisle has produced a set of stylesheets for rendering MathML in browsers. It is also possible to use XSLT to convert XML math markup to LATEX for print (PDF) rendering, or to use XSL:FO. Please note that XML is not itself a programming language, so concepts such as arithmetic and if-statements (if-then-else logic) are not meaningful in XML documents.

What is the difference between a simple element and a complex element?

Simple elements cannot be left empty. It contains fewer attributes, child elements, etc. Simple elements are text-based elements. Complex elements can contain sub-elements, empty elements, etc. The complex element can hold multiple attributes and elements.

What is XSNL?

XSNL stands for XML Search Neutral Language. This language acts between the meta-search interface and the targeted system.

What is SAX in XML?

SAX stands for Simple API for XML. It is a sequential access parser.

It provides a mechanism of reading data from an XML document. It is said to be an alternative to DOM. DOM operates on the documents as a whole, SAX parsers operate on each piece of the XML document sequentially.

SAX consumes less memory. It cannot be used to write an XML document.

What are XML naming rules?

Naming rules are:

> Element names must start with a letter or underscore.
> Element names are case sensitive.
> Element names cannot start with the letters XML.
> Element names can contain letters, digits, hyphens, underscore, and periods.
> Element names cannot contain spaces.

What is XML Signature?

XML Signature is recommended by W3C, and it acts as a digital signature for XML documents. If the signature is contained outside the document, it is called detached signature. If it contains inside the XML document, then it is called Enveloping signature.

What are the three parts of XSL?

XSL consists of three parts:

>> XSLT – Used to transform XML documents
>> XPath – Used for navigating in XML documents
>> XSL-FO – Used for formatting XML documents

What is Complex Element?

A complex element contain other elements or attributes and following are kinds of Complex Elements:

>> It has empty elements
>> It contain other elements
>> It contain only text
>> It contain both other elements and text

Which XML is set to be valid XML?

When the XML file is validated against the Document Type Definition(DTD), then it is called valid XML. DTD is nothing but it defines the structure of an XML file.

Can I Use Java To Create Or Manage Xml Files?

Yes, any programming language can be used to output data from any source in XML format. There is a growing number of front-ends and back-ends for programming environments and data management environments to automate this. Java is just the most popular one at the moment. There is a large body of middleware (APIs) written in Java and other languages for managing data either in XML or with XML input or output.

How Do I Execute Or Run An Xml File?

XML itself is not a programming language, so XML files don't ‘run' or ‘execute'. XML is a markup specification language and XML files are just data: they sit there until you run a program which displays them (like a browser) or does some work with them (like a converter which writes the data in another format, or a database which reads the data), or modifies them (like an editor). If you want to view or display an XML file, open it with an XML editor or an question B.3, XML browser. The water is muddied by XSL (both XSLT and XSL:FO) which use XML syntax to implement a declarative programming language. In these cases it is arguable that you can ‘execute' XML code, by running a processing application like Saxon, which compiles the directives specified in XSLT files into Java bytecode to process XML.

How Do I Control Formatting And Appearance?

In HTML, default styling was built into the browsers because the tagset of HTML was predefined and hardwired into browsers. In XML, where you can define your own tagset, browsers cannot possibly be expected to guess or know in advance what names you are going to use and what they will mean, so you need a stylesheet if you want to display formatted text. Browsers which read XML will accept and use a CSS stylesheet at a minimum, but you can also use the more powerful XSLT stylesheet language to transform your XML into HTML—which browsers, of course, already know how to display (and that HTML can still use a CSS stylesheet). This way you get all the document management benefits of using XML, but you don't have to worry about your readers needing XML smarts in their browsers.

How Does An Application Know Which Address Element Type It Is Processing?

One solution is to simply rename one of the Address element types -- for example, we could rename the second element type IPAddress. However, this is not a useful long term solution. One of the hopes of XML is that people will standardize XML languages for various subject areas and write modular code to process those languages. By reusing existing languages and code, people can quickly define new languages and write applications that process them. If we rename the second Address element type to IPAddress, we will break any code that expects the old name. A better answer is to assign each language (including its Address element type) to a different namespace. This allows us to continue using the Address name in each language, but to distinguish between the two different element types. The mechanism by which we do this is XML namespaces. Note that by assigning each Address name to an XML namespace, we actually change the name to a two-part name consisting of the name of the XML namespace plus the name Address. This means that any code that recognizes just the name Address will need to be changed to recognize the new two-part name. However, this only needs to be done once, as the two-part name is universally unique.

Do Xml Namespaces Apply To Entity Names, Notation Names, Or Processing Instruction Targets?

No.
XML namespaces apply only to element type and attribute names. Furthermore, in an XML documentthat conforms to the XML namespaces recommendation, entity names, notation names, and processing instruction targets must not contain colons.

When to prefer JSON over XML?

Favor JSON over XML when all of these are true:

>> Messages don't need to be validated, or validating their deserialization is simple.
>> You're not transforming messages, or transforming their deserialization is simple.
>> Your messages are mostly data, not marked-up text.
>> The messaging endpoints have good JSON tools.

What is XQuery?

XQuery was designed to query XML data which is nothing but SQL for database tables. XQuery is used to fetch the data from the XML file.

Why XSLT is important for XML?

XSLT is abbreviated as eXtensible Sytlesheet Language Transformation which is used to transform an XML document to HTML before it is displayed to the browser.

What is DTD?

DTD is abbreviated as Document Type Definition and it is defined to build legal building blocks of an XML document. It defines the XML document structure with elements and attributes.

What software is available for XML?

There are thousands of programs available for XML and updated list will be present in http://xml.coverpages.org.

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