Software testing interview questions for experienced/Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

Explain Globalization Testing?

Globalization testing concentrates on detecting potential problems in the product design which could spoil globalization. This certifies that code could handle desired international support by not breaking any functionality. Also, this ensures there would not be any data loss or display problems.

What is Early Testing?

Defects detected in early phases of SDLC are less expensive to fix. So conducting early testing reduces the cost of fixing defects.

What is Boundary value testing?

Test boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes. For instance, let say a bank application where you can withdraw maximum Rs.20,000 and a minimum of Rs.100, so in boundary value testing we test only the exact boundaries, rather than hitting in the middle. That means we test above the maximum limit and below the minimum limit.

What is API (Application Programming Interface)?

Application Programming Interface is a formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program to access supporting system or network services.

The later in the development life cycle a fault is discovered, the more expensive it is to fix. Why?

The fault has been built into more documentation, code, tests, etc

In which order should tests be run?

The most important one must be tested first

What is User Acceptance Testing (UAT)?

UAT is the form of testing of a computer system by the client to verify if it adhered to the provided requirements or not.

What is a Code Walk Through?

An informal analysis of the program source code to find the defects and verify the coding techniques is termed as a Code Walk Through.

What is the full form of CMMI?

Capability Maturity Model Integration

Explain how you will log in into any site if it is showing any authentication popup for username and password?

If there is a pop up for logging in, we need to use the explicit command and verify if the alert is actually present. The below code helps you understand the use of explicit wait command.

WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, 10);
Alert alert = wait.until(ExpectedConditions.alertIsPresent());
alert.authenticateUsing(new UserAndPassword(**username**, **password**));

Which technique should be considered in the script “if there is neither frame id nor frame name”?

If frame name and frame id is not available, then we can use frame by index. For example, there are 3 frames in a web page and if none of them have a frame name and frame id, then we can still select those frames by using frame (zero-based) index attribute. All the frame will have an index number like the first frame would be at index “0”, the second at index “1” and the third at index “2”.

driver.switchTo().frame(int arg0);

What is meant by Defect Cascading?

Defect cascading is a defect which is caused by another defect. One defect triggers the other defect. When a defect is present in any stage but is not identified, hide to other phases without getting noticed. This will result in an increase in the number of defects.

Let us understand this by an example.

You are designing the Login Module of a WebPage:

In phase 1 – You are designing Register User Module for Login and mobile number is mandatory but you can leave it blank due to a bug that gets unnoticed.

In Phase 2 – You will design the login form having username and password. The password is OTP which will be sent to User’s registered mobile number.

Now as Register module has a bug that mobile number can be left blank so this may lead to Login failure or maybe some system error or crash if a null mobile number is not handled. This is known as defect cascading.

What is meant by workbench concept?

A workbench at its core is a way of documenting how a specific activity has to be performed. It is often referred to as phases, steps, and tasks .

There are five tasks for every workbench and they are as follows:

1. Input
2. Execute
3. Check
4. Production output
5. Rewor

What kind of input do we need from the end user to begin proper testing?

An end user is the most important person because he is the one who has to use the product and has a keen interest that anyone else in the project.

What is Object Repository? How can we create Object Repository in Selenium?

Object Repository refers to the collection of web elements belonging to Application Under Test (AUT) along with their locator values. With respect to Selenium, objects can be stored in an excel sheet which can be populated inside the script whenever required.

How to set test case priority in TestNG?

Below code helps you to understand how to set test case priority in TestNG. package TestNG;

import org.testng.annotations.*;
public class SettingPriority {
@Test(priority=0)
public void method1() {
}
@Test(priority=1)
public void method2() {
}
@Test(priority=2)
public void method3() {
}
}

Test Execution Sequence:


Method1
Method2
Method3

What is TestNG?

It is an advanced framework which is designed in a way to leverage the benefits by both the developers and testers. It also has an inbuilt exception handling mechanism which lets the program to run without terminating unexpectedly.

Is Automation testing in agile methodology useful?

Automation testing is very useful in agile methodology and helps in achieving maximum test coverage in a lesser time of the sprint.

What is Software Configuration Management?

The process of identifying, organizing and controlling changes to Software development and maintenance.
(or)
It is a methodology to control and manage a software development project.

What is Pesticide Paradox?

If already prepared test cases do not find defects, add/revise test cases to find more defects, this is known as Pesticide Paradox.

What do you mean by regression and confirmation testing?

Regression Testing: Testing team re-execute the tests against the modified application to make sure whether the modified code breaks anything which was working earlier.

Confirmation Testing: Usually testers report a bug when a test fails. Dev Team releases a new version of the software after the defect is fixed. Now the testing team will retest to make sure the reported bug is actually fixed or not.

What is exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is an approach to software testing, wherein testers learn simultaneously about the test design and test execution. In other words, it is a hands-on approach where testers are involved more in the test execution part than in planning.

What is Smoke Testing?

Smoke Testing is done to make sure if the build we received from the development team is testable or not. It is also called as “Day 0” check. It is done at the “build level”. It helps not to waste the testing time to simply testing the whole application when the key features don’t work or the key bugs have not been fixed yet.

What is Gamma Testing?

Gamma testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements. It is done at the client place. It is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.

Is there any difference between bug leakage and bug release?

Bug leakage: Bug leakage is something, when the bug is discovered by the end user/customer and missed by the testing team to detect while testing the software. It is a defect that exists in the application and not detected by the tester, which is eventually found by the customer/end user.

Bug release: A bug release is when a particular version of the software is released with a set of known bug(s). These bugs are usually of low severity/priority. It is done when a software company can afford the existence of bugs in the released software but not the time/cost for fixing it in that particular version.

What is Alpha Testing?

Alpha testing is done by the in-house developers (who developed the software) and testers before we ship the software to the customers. Sometimes alpha testing is done by the client or outsourcing team with the presence of developers or testers. It is a part of User Acceptance Testing. The purpose of doing this is to find bugs before the customers start using the software.

What is Bottom-Up Approach?

It is a reciprocate of the Top-Down Approach. Testing takes place from bottom to up. Lowest level modules are tested first and then high-level modules and finally integrating the high-level modules to a low level to ensure the system is working as intended. Drivers are used as a temporary module for integration testing.

What is Big Bang Approach?

Combining all the modules once and verifying the functionality after completion of individual module testing.

Top-down and bottom-up are carried out by using dummy modules known as Stubs and Drivers. These Stubs and Drivers are used to stand in for missing components to simulate data communication between modules.

What are the most common components of a defect report?

The most common components of a defect report format include the followingProject Name

* Module Name
* Defect ID
* Defect detected on
* Defect detected by
* Priority
* Severity
* Defect resolved on
* Defect resolved by

What are the tasks of Test Closure activities in Software Testing?

Test Closure activities fall into four major groups.


Test Completion Check: To ensure all tests should be either run or deliberately skipped and all known defects should be either fixed, deferred for a future release or accepted as a permanent restriction.

Test Artifacts handover: Tests and test environments should be handed over to those responsible for maintenance testing. Known defects accepted or deferred should be documented and communicated to those who will use and support the use of the system.

Lessons learned: Analyzing lessons learned to determine changes needed for future releases and projects. In retrospective meetings, plans are established to ensure that good
practices can be repeated and poor practices are not repeated

What is Test Closure?

Test Closure is the note prepared before test team formally completes the testing process. This note contains the total no. of test cases, total no. of test cases executed, total no. of defects found, total no. of defects fixed, total no. of bugs not fixed, total no of bugs rejected etc.,

What is Test Harness?

A test harness is the collection of software and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions which involves monitoring the output with the expected output.

What is a Test Strategy?

The Test Strategy is a high-level document and is usually developed by a project manager. This document captures the approach of how we test the products and achieve the goals. This is normally derived from the Business Requirement Specification (BRS). Documents such as Test Plan are prepared by using this document as the base.

Is there any difference between quality assurance, quality control, and software testing. If so, what is it?

Quality Assurance (QA) refers to the planned and systematic way of monitoring the quality of the process which is followed to produce a quality product. QA tracks the test reports and modifies the process to meet the expectation.

Quality Control (QC) is relevant to the quality of the product. QC not only finds the defects but suggests improvements too. Thus, a process that is set by QA is implemented by QC. QC is the responsibility of the testing team.

Software testing is the process of ensuring that the product which is developed by developers meets the users’ requirements. The aim of performing testing is to find bugs and make sure that they get fixed. Thus, it helps to maintain the quality of the product to be delivered to the customer.

What is Risk-Based Testing?

Identifying the critical functionality in the system and then deciding the orders in which these functionalities are to be tested and perform testing is termed as Risk-based Testing.

What is the average age of a defect in software testing?

Defect age is the time elapsed between the day the tester discovered a defect and the day the developer got it fixed.

While estimating the age of a defect, consider the following points:

* The day of birth of a defect is the day it got assigned and accepted by the development team.
* The issues which got dropped are out of the scope.
* Age can be both in hours or days.
* The end time is the day the defect got verified and closed, not just the day it got fixed by the development team.

What does defect removal efficiency mean in software testing?

Defect removal efficiency (DRE) is one of the testing metrics. It is an indicator of the efficiency of the development team to fix issues before the release.

It gets measured as the ratio of defects fixed to total the number of issues discovered.

For example, let’s say, there were 75 defects discovered during the test cycle while 62 of them got fixed by the development team at the time of measurement. The DRE would be 62/75 = 82.6%

What do you mean by defect detection percentage in software testing?

Defect detection percentage (DDP) is a type of testing metric. It indicates the effectiveness of a testing process by measuring the ratio of defects discovered before the release and reported after the release by customers.

For example, let’s say, the QA has detected 70 defects during the testing cycle and the customer reported 20 more after the release. Then, DDP would be: 70/(70 + 20) = 72.1%

What is Formal Testing?

Software verification, carried out by following a test plan, testing procedures and proper documentation with approval from the customer is termed as Formal Testing.

What is a Database server?

A Database server can be defined as a server that refers to the back-end system of a database application that provides database services such as accessing and retrieving data from the database.

The database server uses client/server architecture where the data can be accessed either through the database server by a “front end” which runs and displays data on the user’s machine or “back-end” which runs on the database server itself.

A database server is like a data warehouse and also holds on Database Management System (DBMS).

In software testing, what does a fault mean?

Fault is a condition that makes the software fail to execute while performing the considered function.

Explain Test Bed?

This is an environment that is configured for testing. The Testbed consists of software, hardware, network configuration, an application under test and other related software issues.

What do you mean by Agile Testing and what is the importance of Agile Testing?

It is a Software Testing process that evaluates the software from a customer’s point of view. This is favorable as this does not require the development team for completing the coding for starting the QA. Rather, both testing and coding go hand in hand. This requires continuous customer interaction. These are the Basic Software Testing Interview Questions for freshers.

What is Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) ?

The Boundary Value Analysis(BVA) is the Black Box Test design technique which is primarily applied to see if there are any bugs at the boundary of an input domain.

Enlist some Web Testing Tools.

Few Web testing tools are enlisted below:

eggplant functional
Selenium
SOA test
JMeter
iMacros, etc.

What do you understand by STLC?

Software testing life cycle (STLC) proposes the test execution in a planned and systematic manner. In the STLC model, many activities occur to improve the quality of the product.

The STLC model lays down the following steps:

1. Requirement Analysis
2. Test Planning
3. Test Case Development
4. Environment Setup
5. Test Execution
6. Test Cycle Closure

On what basis you can arrive at an estimation for your project?

To estimate your project, you have to consider the following points:

1. Divide the whole project into the smallest tasks
2. Allocate each task to team members
3. Estimate the effort required to complete each task
4. Validate the estimation

Should testing be done only after the build and execution phases are complete?

Testing is always done after the build and execution phases Earlier we catch a defect, the more cost effective it is. For example, fixing a defect in maintenance is ten times more costly than fixing it during execution.

How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?

The following syntax can be used to launch the Browser:

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

What is XPath?

XPath also called as XML Path is a language to query XML documents. It is an important strategy to locate elements in selenium. It consists of a path expression along with some conditions. Here, you can easily write XPath script/query to locate any element in the webpage. It is designed to allow the navigation of XML documents, with the purpose of selecting individual elements, attributes, or some other part of an XML document for specific processing. It also produces reliable locators.

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