Routing interview question for freshers/Routing Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

What is ROM Monitor?

If the Bootstrap program is not able to find a valid IOS image, it will act as ROM Monitor.

Utilizing RIP, what is the limit when it comes to the number of hops?

The maximum limit is 15 hop counts. Anything higher than 15 indicates that the network is considered unreachable.

What is latency?

Latency is the amount of time delay that measures the point from which a network device receives a data frame to the time it sends it out again towards another network segment.

How does cut-through LAN switching work?

In Cut-Through LAN switching, as soon as the router receives the data frame, it will immediately send it out again and forward it to the next network segment after reading the destination address.

What is MTU?

MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Unit. It refers to the maximum packet size that can be sent out onto the data line without the need to fragment it.

What is 100BaseFX?

This is Ethernet that makes use of fiber optic cable as the main transmission medium. The 100 stands for 100Mbps, which is the data speed.

What is Kerberos?

It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files.

What is Bootstrap program responsible for?

The Bootstrap program is responsible for

1.Initializing hardware

2.Finding where IOS program is located and then

3.Loading IOS image

What is OSPF?

It is an Internet routing protocol that scales well, can route traffic along multiple paths, and uses knowledge of an Internet’s topology to make accurate routing decisions.

What is Proxy ARP?

It is using a router to answer ARP requests. This will be done when the originating host believes that a destination is local, when in fact is lies beyond router.

What is SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol)?

It is a very simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line.

What is RIP (Routing Information Protocol)?

It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers.

What is source route?

It is a sequence of IP addresses identifying the route a datagram must follow. A source route may optionally be included in an IP datagram header.

What is a characteristic of Store and Forward switches?

They read the entire frame and check CRC before forwarding.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the three types of routing tables?

The three types of routing tables are fixed, dynamic, and fixed central. The fixed table must be manually modified every time there is a change. A dynamic table changes its information based on network traffic, reducing the amount of manual maintenance. A fixed central table lets a manager modify only one table, which is then read by other devices. The fixed central table reduces the need to update each machine’s table, as with the fixed table. Usually a dynamic table causes the fewest problems for a network administrator, although the table’s contents can change without the administrator being aware of the change.

What is the HELLO protocol used for?

The HELLO protocol uses time instead of distance to determine optimal routing. It is an alternative to the Routing Information Protocol.

What is the difference between interior and exterior neighbor gateways?

Interior gateways connect LANs of one organization, whereas exterior gateways connect the organization to the outside world.

What LSA is used for inter-area communication? What LSA type is used for inter protocol communication in OSPF?

Type 3 LSA Is used for Inter region communication. For communication with other protocols or external routes, type 4 and 5 will be utilized.

Define Network Congestion?

The process in which a network node is carrying more data that can’t be handled on the network, and owing to which loss of packets or information happens on the network node and the receiver can’t receive appropriate information is termed as Network Congestion.

What is Half-duplex and Full-duplex?

In half-duplex, the transmission of information or communication is from one direction only.

Example: Walkie-talkie

In full-duplex, the transmission of information or communication is from both the directions.

Example: Talking on the telephone.

What protocol is used by DNS name servers?

DNS uses UDP for communication between servers. It is a better choice than TCP because of the improved speed a connectionless protocol offers. Of course, transmission reliability suffers with UDP.

Differentiate User Mode from Privileged Mode

User Mode is used for regular task when using a CISCO router, such as to view system information, connecting to remote devices, and checking the status of the router. On the other hand, privileged mode includes all options that are available for User Mode, plus more. You can use this mode in order to make configurations on the router, including making tests and debugging.

What is the function of the Application Layer in networking?

The Application Layer supports the communication components of an application and provides network services to application processes that span beyond the OSI reference model specifications. It also synchronizes applications on the server and client.

What is Half-duplex and Full-duplex?

BootP is a protocol that is used to boot diskless workstations that are connected to the network. It is short for Boot Program. Diskless workstations also use BootP in order to determine its own IP address as well as the IP address of the server PC.

What is a DNS resource record?

A resource record is an entry in a name server’s database. There are several types of resource records used, including name-to-address resolution information. Resource records are maintained as ASCII files.

What is the difference between Switch, Routers, and Hub?

Switch: A Switch is used to receive the signal to create a frame. It forwards the packets between various LAN segments. It is the platform for packet control when the data is sent at a Data Link layer or Network layer of the OSI model. It supports a single broadcast domain and multiple collision domains.

Routers: Router is defined as a networking gateway device that is used to forward data packets to the computer networks. A router is connected by at least a single LAN with its IP address or with LAN or WAN. A router supports two broadcast domains.

Hub: In the hub, if anything comes in its port then it sends it out to the others. It is less expensive and the least complicated. It has a single collision domain and a single broadcast domain.

What is a Switch and why we are using Switches?

Switch is used to receive the signal to create a frame. It forwards the packets between various LAN segments. It supports packet control when the data is sent to the Data Link layer or Network layer of the OSI model.

While sending packets, the signal gets enabled and can be accessed by reading the destination address and forwards the frame to the appropriate frame, hence we use switches.

Describe the four routers types?

The four router types are:

* Autonomous System Boundary Routers = An OSPF Router which advertises exterior routes into the OSPF Domain.
* Internal Routers = An OSPF Router whose all interfaces belong to the same area.
* Area Border Routers = An OSPF Router which has interfaces in more than one area
* Backbone Routers = An OSPF Router which is inside the Router in Area 0

What are the different layers of the OSI model?

Basically, there are 7 layers of the OSI model. Each layer has its own functionality in the OSI model.

They are:

* Layer 1 – Physical
* Layer 2 – Data Link Layer
* Layer 3 – Network
* Layer 4 – Transport
* Layer 5 – Session
* Layer 6 – Presentation
* Layer 7- Application

Name the steps required to change neighborships into adjacency?

Some of the steps required are:

* State Request (LSR) packets, Link State, inform (LSU) packets.
* Two-way announcement
* Database Synchronization which means a switch of Database Description packets, Link
* After Database synchronization is complete, the two Routers are measured as adjacent.

Name the key attributes of OSPF?

Some of them are:

* Equal Cost Routes management: CEF Load corresponding
* Protocol Type of OSPF: Link State
* Transport: IP (Port89) submit to network walks website
* Metric of OSPF: Cost (Bandwidth)
* Standard: RFC2328 (OSPFv2), RFC2740 (OSPFv3/IPv6)

How can we change the router ID in the OSPF domain?

OSPF Router ID should not be misused after the OSPF method is started and the OSPF neighborships are recognized. If we change the OSPF Router ID, we need to either refill the IOS or use “#clear IP OSPF process authority for changed RID to take effect.

What is the OSI reference model?

OSI is a reference model that tells how information and data are communicated over a network. It is a conceptual framework that understands the relationships of transmission.

BOOTP helps a diskless workstation boot. How does it get a message to the network looking for its IP address and the location of its operating system boot files ?

BOOTP sends a UDP message with a subnetwork broadcast address and waits for a reply from a server that gives it the IP address. The same message might contain the name of the machine that has the boot files on it. If the boot image location is not specified, the workstation sends another UDP message to query the server.

What is External Data Representation?

External Data Representation is a method of encoding data within an RPC message, used to ensure that the data is not system-dependent.

What does the Mount protocol do?

The Mount protocol returns a file handle and the name of the file system in which a requested file resides. The message is sent to the client from the server after reception of aclient’s request.

What is a pseudo tty?

A pseudo tty or false terminal enables external machines to connect through Telnet or rlogin. Without a pseudo tty, no connection can take place.

What is anonymous FTP and why would you use it?

Anonymous FTP enables users to connect to a host without using a valid login and password. Usually, anonymous FTP uses a login called anonymous or guest, with the password usually requesting the user’s ID for tracking purposes only. Anonymous FTP is used to enable a large number of users to access files on the host without having to go to the trouble of setting up logins for them all. Anonymous FTP systems usually have strict controls over the areas an anonymous user can access.

What is a Management Information Base (MIB)?

A Management Information Base is part of every SNMP-managed device. Each SNMP agent has the MIB database that contains information about the device’s status, its performance, connections, and configuration. The MIB is queried by SNMP.

Explain the function of Transmission Control Block.

A TCB is a complex data structure that contains a considerable amount of information about each connection.

How does RIP differ from IGRP?

RIP relies on the number of hops in order to determine the best route to a network. On the other hand, IGRP takes consideration many factors before it decides the best route to take, such as bandwidth, reliability, MTU and hop count.

What is the role of the LLC sublayer?

The LLC sublayer stands for Logical Link Control. It can provide optional services to an application developer. One option is to provide flow control to the Network layer by using stop/start codes. The LLC can also provide error correction.

Which LAN switching method is used in CISCO Catalyst 5000?

CISCO Catalyst 5000 uses the Store-and-forward switching method. It stores the entire frame to its buffers and performs a CRC check before deciding whether or not to forward that data frame.

Does a bridge divide a network into smaller sections?

Not really. What a bridge actually does is to take the large network and filter it, without changing the size of the network.

What is a Window in networking terms?

A Window refers to the number of segments that are allowed to be sent from source to destination before an acknowledgment is sent back.

When does network congestion occur?

Network congestion occurs when too many users are trying to use the same bandwidth. This is especially true in big networks that do not resort to network segmentation.

What is the key advantage of using switches?

When a switch receives a signal, it creates a frame out of the bits that were from that signal. With this process, it gains access and reads the destination address, after which it forwards that frame to the appropriate port. This is a very efficient means of data transmission, instead of broadcasting it on all ports.

What is the purpose of the Data Link?

The job of the Data Link layer is to check messages are sent to the right device. Another function of this layer is framing.

What is Routing?

Routing is the process of finding a path on which data can pass from source to destination. Routing is done by a device called routers, which are network layer devices.

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