Apache tomcat interview questions for freshers/Apache/Tomcat Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

What do you mean by Tomcat Coyote and what is its use?

Tomcat Coyote is basically an HTTP connector based on HTTP/ 1.1 configuration which accepts and sends the web request to the Tomcat engine and again reverts to the client which makes the request.

What are the features of Tomcat Valve?

Tomcat Valve is a brand-new feature that debuted with Tomcat 4. It's used to connect a Java class object to a specific Catalina container.

What is the deployment process of web application using the WAR file?

There is a Web apps directory in Tomcat under which all the web components JSP, Servlets, HTML are placed. Hereby putting all the files into a single folder we can compress the files into a single unit which has .WAR extension.

Now, we can easily deploy the web application by putting the WAR file in the Web apps directory. And, when the server starts it extracts all the web components.

What is the procedure for deploying a web application utilising a WAR file?

In Tomcat, all web components such as JSPs, Servlets, and HTML are stored in the Web applications directory. We may compress all of the files into a single unit with the.WAR extension by putting them all in a single folder. By placing the WAR file under the Web applications directory, we can now quickly deploy the web application. When the server first starts up, it extracts all of the web components.

What are the vital benefits of Running Tomcat as service?

The benefits of Running Tomcat as service are:

Automatic Startup – If tomcat window service starts up automatically then it would be helpful when we want to start the system remotely.
Security – It allows you to execute under a special account which is protected from the other accounts.
Starting off the server without active user login: So even if there is no active user, the available server can be started.

What are the key advantages of using Running Tomcat as a service?

Running Tomcat as a service has the following advantages: Automatic Startup — If the Tomcat window service starts up automatically, it will be easier to start the system remotely. Security - It enables you to run code under a separate account that is isolated from the others. Starting the server without an active user: The accessible server can be started even if there is no active user.

Explain the many types of connectors that Apache Tomcat uses.

The following are the two types of connections that Apache Tomcat uses: HTTP Connectors: HTTP connectors include properties that can be changed to govern how they perform and to gain access to features like redirects and proxy forwarding. AJP Connectors: AJP connectors work in the same way as HTTP connectors but use the AJP protocol instead of HTTP. Mod jk, a plug-in technology for Apache Tomcat, is used to implement them.

What is a Tomcat High availability ?

A high-availability feature has been added to facilitate the scheduling of system upgrades without affecting the live environment. This is done by dispatching live traffic requests to a temporary server on a different port while the main server is upgraded on the main port. It is very useful in handling user requests on high-traffic web applications.

What is Coyote ?

Coyote is a Connector component for Tomcat that supports the HTTP 1.1 protocol as a web server. This allows Catalina, nominally a Java Servlet or JSP container, to also act as a plain web server that serves local files as HTTP documents.

Coyote listens for incoming connections to the server on a specific TCP port and forwards the request to the Tomcat Engine to process the request and send back a response to the requesting client.
Coyote is the HTTP connector that’s built into Tomcat and provides Tomcat with an interface that browsers can connect to.

What is TomEE?

Apache TomEE (pronounced “Tommy”) is the Java Enterprise Edition of Apache Tomcat (Tomcat + Java EE = TomEE) that combines several Java enterprise projects including Apache OpenEJB, Apache OpenWebBeans, Apache OpenJPA, Apache MyFaces and others.

What is the difference between Tomcat and an Application server

Tomcat is a servlet container that supports servlets and the JSP technology. An Application server supports many other Java EE technologies.

How do we set up Apache Tomcat in the Java Eclipse IDE, or how do we explain how to set up Apache Tomcat Server?

Installing Apache Tomcat in Eclipse is quite simple and straightforward. The following are the steps: At the bottom of the IDE, select the Servers tab. Right-click on a white or blank space. Select New. Go to Servers and select it. Select Tomcat and the most recent version. Next should be selected. Choose the browse option. Choose the Tomcat root directory. After that, click the next button. Click the Add All button. Finish by clicking the Finish button. Verify that Tomcat is presenting a blank area.

Explain When To Use Ssl With Tomcat?

You would use Tomcat to handle connection when you are running Tomcat as a stand-alone web server.

Mention the configuration files of Catalina.

The configurations files of Catalina include:

<> XML
<> Properties
<> Policy
<> Tomcat-users.xml

How To Communicate Between Two Web Servers In Two Diff Systems?

By using a plug module.
it is having two containers:
Web Container (for interpreting/executing servlets and jsps)
EJB container(for executing EJBs).
it can perform operations like load balancing, transaction demarcation, etc.

What is Tomcat-users.xml configuration file?

It is where the Tomcat users are defined and it is located in the conf folder of the Tomcat server root.

Can we run multiple instances of Tomcat server on a single machine? If yes how?

I had posted a blog entry about configuring multiple instances of tomcat on a single machine. ( data science training online )

What is Tomcat high availability?

It is a feature which is added in Tomcat in order to facilitator schedules of system upgrades without actually affecting the live environment. By dispatching the live traffic request from the main server to a temporary server on an entirely different port this is done. It is terminated until the main server is upgraded on the main port. It is a very beneficial feature to deal with the request on a high traffic web application.

What is the server server.xml configuration file?

The server.xml file is Tomcat main configuration file, and it is responsible for specifying Tomcat configuration on startup.

What is the directory structure of a web application deployed on Tomcat?

The typical web application structure which is deployed on tomcat is:
Tomcat-application-structure
The contents of the WEB-INF folder shall look like:
web-inf.

How do you define a welcome file list?

We can define the welcome file list in web.xml deployment descriptor by using the welcome-file-list tag as shown in the following sample code:
index.html
index.htm
index.jsp
The actual welcome file being presented to the user shall be decided from the above list. If index.html is present then it shall be shown. If no index.html file is present in the root folder of a web application, then server tries to find a file with the name index.htm and that also fails then it finds index.jsp.

Explain the types of connectors used by Apache Tomcat.

Apache Tomcat basically uses two types of connectors which are as follows:

1. HTTP Connectors: HTTP connectors possess attributes which can be modified to determine exactly how it works and access functions such as redirects and proxy forwarding.

2. AJP Connectors: AJP connectors follow the AJP protocol in place the of HTTP but work just same as HTTP connectors. They are implemented in Apache Tomcat through the plug-in technology mod_jk.

How do you find which version of Apache Tomcat web server is running?

The best way to find the currently running version is stated below:

1. Sign in to the web-server
2. Go to apache instance and bin folder
3. Run “httpd -v” command to get version detail.

What is the name of Tomcat's built-in Web Container?

Catalina is the name of Tomcat's built-in Web Container, which can be found in the bin directory. Catalina is responsible for loading all HTTP requests and can create objects for the GET () and POST () methods.

What is Apache Tomcat, and how does it work?

Apache Tomcat is an open-source (i.e., freely available on the internet) Web server and servlet system developed by the Apache Software Foundation. Java programmers primarily use this server.

What services are provided by Tomcat?

Tomcat server provides a host of services which are not provided by normal web servers like Apache Web Server. Those are:

<> Servlet Life cycle
<> Handle Web Requests
<> Database connection pooling
<> Clustering
<> High availability

Can Tomcat use SSL?

Yes, you need to make additional configurations to make Tomcat use SSL. In resume you need to do these tasks

* Generate Keystore
* Add a conector in server.xml
* Restart Tomcat

How to deploy War web applications in Tomcat

You can drop the WAR file inside the webapps folder or use the Tomcat manager to deploy War files.

What is the Tomcat default port?

The default port for Tomcat is 8080. You can change the default port by editing the file server.xml under the conf folder in the Tomcat installed directory. Change the property Connector port=”8080″ to the desired port and restart Tomcat so the changes can take effect.

Name some Tomcat features

Tomcat 7.x implements the Servlet 3.0 and JSP 2.2 specifications. It requires Java version 1.6. Tomcat 8.x implements the Servlet 3.1 and JSP 2.4 Specifications. Tomcat 8.5.x is intended to replace 8.0.x and includes new features pulled forward from Tomcat 9.0.x. Tomcat 8.5 is designed to run on Java SE 7 and later.

How can we configure Apache Tomcat in Java Eclipse IDE or explain the setup of Apache Tomcat Server?

It is really very easy and simple to install Apache Tomcat in Eclipse.

The steps are mentioned below:

1. Select the Server’s tab at the bottom side of IDE.
2. Right-click on blank space or white space.
3. Click on New
4. Click on Servers
5. Choose Tomcat and its next version.
6. Click on next
7. Select the browse button
8. Select the Tomcat root folder
9. Click next
10. Click Add all
11. Click Finish
12. Validate the blank area Tomcat must be displaying.

Why is Tomcat not an application server?

Application server is broader term where a host services apart from deploying a JSP/Servlet based application are provided. Tomcat is a web server and not application server. This is because of the fact that Tomcat doesn’t provide services to install/manage EJB and JMS based applications.

Who according to you is responsible for the Tomcat Foundation?

The Apache Software Foundation is an organization that looked after most of the open source projects. Jakarta is the name of the Java-based project on this foundation and Tomcat is a web server which is handling server data off Java. Tomcat is basically a part of the Apache Jakarta project and a reference for the implementation of servlet and JSP standards.

Do you have any idea about the history of Tomcat?

Tomcat initially started as a servlet reference which was implemented by James Duncan Davidson. He was known as a software architect at Sun Microsystems Group. He was the person who started helping to make the open source project and work as a fusion for Sun Microsystems and Apache Software Foundation. The most tragic part of Tomcat with the development of this and another Apache was that a software automation tool also got developed as a side effect.

What is Tomcat high availability?

It is a feature which is added in Tomcat in order to facilitator schedules of system upgrades without actually affecting the live environment. By dispatching the live traffic request from the main server to a temporary server on an entirely different port this is done. It is terminated until the main server is upgraded on the main port. It is a very beneficial feature to deal with the request on a high traffic web application.

What is Tomcat cluster?

In order to manage the large applications Tomcat cluster is used. It is used more efficiently for load balancing and for managing most of the traffic, Apache Tomcat cluster is utilized. For the Tomcat server, it can provide multiple instances based on its content.

What is Catalina in Apache Tomcat?

Once Jasper has done the compilation it converts JSP into the servlet and allows Catalina to handle further. Catalina is a Tomcat's servlet container. It also implements all of the specifications for Java server pages and servlets. Catalina is a Java engine which is built into Tomcat providing an environment for the servlets to run efficiently.

Which module is required to have redirection possible?

od_rewrite is responsible for the redirection, and this must be uncommented in httpd.conf file.

LoadModule rewrite_module modules/mod_rewrite.so

What are the types of batch file with the help of which we can Start and Stop Apache Tomcat Server?

There are basically two types of batch files with which we can Start and Stop the Server.

They are as follows:

1. Startup.bat
2. Shutdown.bat

How to start and shutdown to tomcat server?

There are two .sh file in cd $CATALINA_HOME/bin dir or in /usr/share/tomcat7/bin/
./startup.sh
./shutdown.sh

How to change the default(8080) port number?

Go to the tomcat>conf folder.
Edit server.xml. (/usr/share/tomcat/conf/server.xml)
Search “Connector port”
Replace “8080” by your port number.
Restart tomcat server.
For example, if you change the port to 1977, you would request the URL
Note: While changing the port number make sure that port is not already in use and port no should be greater than 1024, as ports less than or equal to 1024 require superuser access to bind to. ( python training )

what is the configuration file in tomcat server?

Tomacat XML Configuration Files:
server.xml(TOMCAT-HOME/conf/server.xml)
web.xml (TOMCAT-HOME/conf/web.xml)
tomcat-users.xml (TOMCAT-HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml)

What Is Default Session Time Out In Tomcat?

The default session timeout 30 minutes in tomcat and can change in $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/web.xml via modifying below entry.

What are the directories under the apache-tomcat installation dir?

conf – Server configuration files (including server.xml)
logs – Log and output files
shared – For classes and resources that must be shared across all web applications
web-apps – Automatically loaded web applications
work – Temporary working directories for web applications
temp – directory used by the JVM for temporary files (java.io.tmpdir)

What is the name of inbuilt Web Container in Tomcat?

The name of the inbuilt Web Container in Tomcat is Catalina which is present in the bin directory.

Catalina is used for loading all the requests related to HTTP and can instantiate the objects of GET () and POST () methods.

What is the default port for Apache Tomcat?

The default port of Apache Tomcat is port 8080.

What is Apache Tomcat?

Apache Tomcat is basically a Web Server and Servlet system which is an open-source (i.e. freely available on the internet) and is created by Apache Software Foundation. It is the server mostly used by Java Developers.

The server is nothing but a computer program that provides service to other computers.

There are basically two types of server:

1. Application Server
2. Web Server

Apache Tomcat offers HTTP protocol, which means the user can connect with the server from anywhere by the URL provided and can access the Java application.

Explain when you can use . and when you can use []?

If you are running a bean property, use the .operator, and if you are executing a map value or an array index, it is preferred to use the [] operator. Although you can use these operators interchangeably.

Mention what is the output of select * from tab?

It displays the default tables in the database

Explain what is Jasper?

<> Jasper is a Tomcat’s JSP engine
<> It parses JSP files to compile them into JAVA code as servlets
<> At runtime, Jasper allows to automatically detect JSP file changes and recompile them

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