Test closure activities have several goals, such as to:
* Ensure the completion of testing
* Gather and handover test artifacts
* Hold retrospective meetings and come up with Lessons Learned
Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process of software development, presented as a set of sequential phases such as:
* Analysis and Design
* Implementation (Coding)
* Deployment and Maintenance (in some sources called ‘Evolution,’ to emphasize the importance of Retrospective analysis and Lessons Learned practices which become a background for another software development cycle)
So it can be said that the Software Testing Life Cycle is a part of the Software Development Life Cycle, and represents testing activities held within it. A rule of thumb is to have a testing activity for every development activity, and to start it as early as possible. For instance, test design for each test level should start in parallel with the corresponding development activity.
STLC means a software testing process divided into specific phases which are executed sequentially with the aimed of improving the quality of system under test.
Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is a perfect distinctive description of the conduct of the gadget to be advanced.
SRS report is an settlement among the developer and the purchaser masking the functional and non useful requirements of the software program to be advanced.
SRS document consists of 2 sub files:
System Requirements Specification
Functional Requirements Specification
SRS can be derived from BRS Document and it's miles technical document.
This is an preliminary degree in SDLC? on this level business analyst class people accumulate requirements from the customer and report them, the file referred to as BRS (Business requirements specification) or CRS (client requirements specification) or URS (person necessities specification) or PRD (product necessities specification) or BDD (enterprise design record)
There are exceptional methodologies, which can be a part of the agile model. The maximum famous one is scrum technique. Like all of the different agile pc programming, scrum is likewise an iterative and incremental methodology. This methodology is specific than the other methodologies due to the fact, the concept of empirical technique manipulate became introduced on this manner. As a count number of reality, scrum changed into delivered for software program project control. However, it became eventually extensively utilized for software program maintenance.The great a part of the scrum technique is that it makes use of actual global progress of a undertaking, that's used for planning and scheduling releases. The entire pc software program assignment is divided into small elements referred to as sprints. The period of dash can variety from one week to 3 weeks. At the end of the duration of the dash, the team contributors in conjunction with the stakeholders meet. This assembly allows in assessing the progress of the mission and chalk out the in addition plan of action. This assessment facilitates in taking stalk of the modern-day situation and transform the road of labor and whole the challenge on time and now not just speculate or are expecting the in addition outcome.
It is an high priced approach and time taking method when its evaluate to sequential models like Waterfall model.
Customer could consider the prototype as the operating model.
Developer also ought to make the implementation compromises.
Once Requirements finalized then adopting modifications in Requirements and including New Requirements are tough.
Reduces the development time and reusability of components assist to speed up development.
Easy to paintings if all functions are modularized.
Quick preliminary evaluations arise.
Encourages customer remarks.
Integration from very beginning solves quite a few integration problems.
Disadvantages:Only system that may be modularized can be constructed using RAD.
Requires pretty skilled developers/designers.
High dependency on modeling capabilities.
Inapplicable to cheaper projects as cost of modeling and automated code generation may be very excessive.
Capability Maturity Model is a bench-mark for measuring the adulthood of an business enterprise’s software manner. It is a method used to broaden and refine an business enterprise’s software development system. CMM can be used to assess an organisation towards a scale of five procedure maturity levels based totally on positive Key Process Areas (KPA). It describes the adulthood of the organisation based totally upon the assignment the company is managing and the customers. Each degree ranks the company in step with its standardization of tactics in the concern location being assessed.
The Big Bang model follows no specific procedure, and very little time is spent on planning. Even the customer isn't certain about what precisely they need and the requirements are carried out at the fly with out tons evaluation. This is normally used for small tasks and now not advocated for big or complicated projects, because it’s a high-risk model; if the requirements are misunderstood inside the starting, you may get to the end and understand the assignment may should be commenced all all over again.
The answer to this question depends on the experience of an interview candidate. If the candidate answers the SDLC model to be the Waterfall model, then the interviewer will start asking questions about the Waterfall model and if he answers it to be Agile, then the interviewer will start asking terms related to Agile methodology such as Scrum, Sprint, etc.
An iterative life cycle version does now not attempt to begin with a full specification of requirements. Instead, improvement starts offevolved with the aid of specifying and imposing just a part of the software program, which can then be reviewed in order to identify similarly requirements. This technique is then repeated, generating a new edition of the software for each cycle of the model.
RAD (rapid application development) is a concept that products may be evolved quicker and of higher high-quality through:Requirements the usage of workshops or consciousness agencies
Prototyping and early, reiterative person testing of designs
The re-use of software program components
A rigidly paced schedule that defers design enhancements to the next product version
Less formality in evaluations and other crew verbal exchange.
Quality Assurance is ensuring that the delivered software has the least number of defects possible. Quality Control is the process of ensuring that the quality of the product is maintained in the long run.
Quality Assurance is done by the testing team of the project while Quality Control is usually done by a dedicated support team, who is responsible for the quality of the product even if the product is under the maintenance phase of software engineering.
The incremental model is an intuitive approach to the waterfall version. Multiple improvement cycles take area right here, making the life cycle a “multi-waterfall” cycle. Cycles are divided up into smaller, extra easily controlled iterations. Each new release passes through the necessities, design, implementation and trying out levels.
Non-functional requirements measure the usability of the application such as User Interface look and feel, Security, Performance, Interoperability, Reliability, etc.
The Maintenance segment consists of implementation of changes that software program may undergo over a time period, or implementation of new necessities after the software program is deployed at the customer location. The maintenance section also consists of dealing with the residual errors that may exist in the software program even after the trying out phase.
The Deployment phase is nothing but the product is added / deployed to the patron for his or her use after the a success checking out.
A feasibility study is conducted on a software product to assess how practical and beneficial is the development of the software product to the organization. Software is analyzed thoroughly to understand the economic and technical aspects of a software product to be developed.
White box testing is testing the application with the knowledge of the internal structure and code implementation. This testing is generally performed by the developer who has written the code in the form of unit tests.
Black box testing involves testing the application without the knowledge of the internal structure or code implementation. Testers would only bother about the functionality of the software in black box testing rather than data flow and code execution in the back end.
CASE stands for Computer-Aided Software Engineering tools that are utilized to support and accelerate the various activities of the Software Development Lifecycle.
Software configuration management is the process of tracking and controlling the changes that occur during the software development lifecycle. Any change made during software development has to be tracked through a well-defined and controlled process.
Configuration management ensures that any changes made during software development are being controlled through a well-defined process.
Modularization is used to divide software into multiple components or modules. Each module is worked upon by an independent development and testing team. The final result would be to combine multiple modules into a single working component.
Different types of Prototype Models are as follows:
Non Nonoperational Prototype.
Selected Features Prototype.
Different Phases in SDLC are as follows:
Requirement and Analysis
The necessities special inside the SRS document is translated right into a logical shape that can be implemented in a programming language. System Design helps in specifying hardware, gadget requirements and in defining normal gadget architecture. The output of the layout section is a layout report that acts as an enter for all the next SDLC stages.
A Software Project Manager is responsible for driving the project towards successful completion. It is the responsibility of the Software Project Manager to make sure the entire team follows a systematic and well-defined approach towards the development of software.
A software project manager is also responsible for the following tasks:
* Project planning
* Project status tracking
* Resource management
* Risk management
* Project delivery within time and budget.
The CRS is a brief record organized by using the enterprise analyst and may consists of many contradicting facts, duplicates, lacking records.
The SRS is a base covered and very last report that is nicely organized and clean in terms of knowledge which is used as reference by way of the test engineers.
It is a degree to evaluate how sensible and useful the software undertaking development could be for an agency. The software analyzer conducts a radical examine to recognize monetary, technical and operational feasibility of the venture.
SRS or Software Requirement Specification is a file produced on the time of requirement collecting technique. It may be also seen as a system of refining necessities and documenting them.SRS is a formal file that acts as a written agreement among the development crew and the client. SRS acts as input to the layout phase and consists of useful, overall performance, software program, hardware, and community necessities of the task.
Maintenance types are: corrective, adaptive, perfective and preventive.
Removing errors spotted by users
tackling the changes in the hardware and software environment where the software
implementing changes in existing or new requirements of user
taking appropriate measures to avoid future problems
Quality Assurance monitors to check if proper process is followed while software developing the
Quality Control deals with maintaining the quality of software product.
Validation checks if the product is made as per user requirements whereas verification checks if
proper steps are followed to develop the product
A recently developed system is continuously monitored during the evaluation and maintenance phase.
The scope of the project consists of the goals, objectives, and expected outcomes of a project. Software scope is involved in defining boundaries that include all the processes which are used to develop and deliver the product. 'Scope' helps to recognize what the system will do and what it will not do.
Cost of error correction is very less at the early stage of requirement analysis.
Yes, bug fixes stage also includes software maintenance
The design is one of the most challenging phases of the SDLC lifecycle.
LLDs stand for Low-level Designs. It considers a descriptive design plan that takes part in the development process.
HLDs stand for High-level Designs. It is present from the starting of the development process. HLDs are given by architects.
STLC stands for Software Testing Life Cycle. Software testing is a systematic approach and has five phases:
1. Test Planning
2. Test Design
3. Test Execution
4. Evaluating the Exit criteria
5. Test Closure
The Spiral model is a combination of the iterative and the waterfall model. Here, the product is developed and improved after each iteration of the model. This model is used for complicated and expensive projects.
This spiral model has 4 phases:
<> Identification of the requirements – The system requirements of the product is obtained here by the communication between the system analyst and the end user.
<> Designing – The physical, architectural, module and the product designs are made here for the software.
<> Construction – This is the phase where the POC (Proof of Concept) is developed for receiving the user reviews on the product. Later on, a working model called Build is developed.
<> Risk analysis – The risks associated with the product are identified here.
The detailed study of the existing system is called System analysis
The DDLC (Documentation Development Life Cycle) is basically a developmental life cycle used by the technical documenters for preparing the documentation of the software. The life cycle is followed alongside the SDLC, as the testers and developers work parallel to create the software.
Scrum methodology is an iterative and incremental methodology. This is considered as one of the best methodologies because the empirical process control is introduced in this process. Scrum is not only for software project management but also for software maintenance. In other words, scrum deals with the real-world progress of a project that is used for making plans and scheduling.
1. The Patch-Up Prototype
2. Nonoperational Prototype
3. First-of-a-Series Prototype
4. Selected Features Prototype
Prototyping in SDLC is a process through a software prototype is developed depicting the core functionality of the software product but does not show the actual details or logic. It is actually a working model of the software that allows the users to understand whether the product meets their needs.
Based on the analysis, the developer can further enhance and update the software. This process reduces the costs and time taken for development as the problems are fixed before implementation. The prototyping types are rapid, incremental, evolutionary and extreme.
Some of the common problems face in waterfall model are
* Waterfall model is not ideal for complex projects where requirements are not clear
* It needs lots of time to complete every stage
* There are certain bugs which never rectified in this model
Different testing methodologies are practiced detecting the software bugs, which happen to take birth during the previous phases. Today, there are many types o testing tools, and methodologies are available. Few firs are also building their testing tools, which are custom made as per the need or their organizations.
Highest abstraction level is called Level 0 DFD (Data Flow Diagram). It is also is known as context level DFD. It gives specifications about the entire information system as one diagram which has all the details about the system.