Business Analyst interview questions for freshers/Business Analyst Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

Differentiate between a Risk and an Issue?

‘Risk’ is nothing but a problem or something that can be predicted earlier so that some improvement plans are used to handle them. Whereas, an ‘Issue’ means the risk that had happened or occurred.

The role of a BA is not to solve the issue instead should suggest some plans to control the loss/damage caused. And this should be marked as a precautionary measure for other projects.

Explain how you see yourself fit for the role of business analyst in our organization?

Focus on your education, skill sets, and experience, that make you a good fit for the role. Do not forget to give examples of the previous works to highlight your expertise and what benefits you can bring to the company.

One important thing here is to focus on the skills outlined in the job role and accordingly highlight your experience and competencies.

What are the tasks that are not part of a Business Analyst’s job?

Business Analyst is not part of the enlisted tasks:

<> Should not intend to organize the project team meetings.
<> Should not bother regarding the risks and issues tracker of a project.
<> Should not perform activities like testing (executing the TC’s), coding or programming.

What are the different types of the gap that a business analyst can encounter during gap analysis?

There are mainly four types of gap –

* Performance Gap – The difference between expected performance and the actual performance
* Product/Market Gap – The gap between budgeted sales and actual sales is termed as product/market gap
* Profit Gap – The variance between a targeted and actual profit of the company.
* Manpower Gap – The gap between the required number and quality of workforce and actual strength in the organization

What makes you unique from others?

“I am technically sound and can make a strong relationship with the customer. With this unique combination, I can use my knowledge and information to build a user-friendly environment”.

What is business modeling?

Business modeling is identifying the value proposition for a business and then building a step-by-step approach for operating the business. This step-by-step approach is known as business modeling. It includes vision, mission, and strategies to achieve the goals.

How does CATWOE help in business analysis and decision-making?

Customers, Actors, Transformation process, Worldview, Owners, and Environmental constraints (CATWOE) helps in making decisions ahead of time. It includes analyzing how those decisions will affect customers (C); who are involved as actors (A); what different transformation (T) processes are which might affect the system, global picture, and worldwide (W) issues; who is responsible/has ownership (O) for the business; and what the environmental (E) impacts will be of the project/business.

What is Kano analysis?

Kano Analysis is used to analyze a system regarding its requirements to identify its impact on customers’ satisfaction.

What is BPMN and what are its basic elements?

BPMN is the Business Process Model and Notation. It is a graphical representation of business processes.

There are five basic elements of BPMN, and they are –

* Flow Objects
* Data
* Connecting Objects
* Swimlanes
* Artifacts

In your previous experience, what kind of documents you have created?

I have worked on, Functional Specification Documents, Technical Specification Documents, Business Requirements Documents, Use Case Diagram, etc.

As a business analyst, what are the tools which are more helpful to you?

There are many tools, but mostly use the tool are: 1)MS Visio, 2)MS Word, 3)MS Excel, 4)PowerPoint, 5)MS Project.

How can you say that a requirement is good or perfect?

The features and standards of a good requirement can be pointed out using a rule called SMART rule.

Specific: The description of a requirement should be perfect and specific enough to understand it.
Measurable: There are various parameters through which the requirement’s success can be measured.
Attainable: Resources should be able to achieve success with the requirement.
Relevant: States that what results are realistically achieved.
Timely: Requirements for a project should be revealed in time.

What is meant by Benchmarking?

The process of measuring the quality of policies, programs, products, rules and other measures of an organization against the standard measures or the other companies is termed as Benchmarking. This is used to measure the performance of a company to compete in the industry.

The main purpose of benchmarking is to find out the areas of improvement in a company and to analyze how the neighbor companies are achieving their goals.

What is Pareto Analysis?

Pareto Analysis which is also known as 80/20 rule is a decision-making technique. It is a useful technique for defect resolution and quality control. As per this analysis rule, 20 % causes create 80 % effects in a system, which is why it is named as 80/20 rule.

What is Pareto Analysis?

The two documents are:

* FRD (Functional Requirement Document)
* SDD (System Design Document).

Do you think a business analyst should be involved in testing?

Yes. Because a business analyst understands the overall system requirements and challenges associated with it very well. Hence, he can be instrumental during the testing phase to run it appropriately and resolve any system related query.

What do you mean by critical path analysis?

A project will involve a set of activities from start to finish. A critical path is the set of activities that includes the longest path in the whole project. So, critical path analysis is a key component in reducing project timelines and controlling cost.

hat is the difference between exception flow and alternate flow?

Alternate flow are the alternative actions that can be performed apart for the main flow and can be considered as an optional flow.
Exception flow is the path traversed in case of any exception or error.

What is an activity diagram and what are the important elements of it?

An activity diagram is a visual representation of the workflow of a business use case. This diagram shows various activities that take place in an organization in different departments like HR, Sales, Accounts, etc. The activity diagram highlights the differences in the departments.
The important elements in Activity diagram are initial nodes, activities, control flows, decisions, a fork, guard conditions, join and end nodes.

What are exceptions?

These are unexpected situations or results in an application.

What is meant by an alternate flow in a use case?

It is the alternative solution or activity in a use case that should be followed in case of any failure in the system.

Name two types of diagrams used in Business analyst

The two diagrams are Use Case Diagram and Collaboration Diagram

Do you think Activity Diagram is important?

As the name implies, an activity diagram is all about system activities. The main purpose of the activity diagram is to show various events taking place in an organization in different departments.

What does UML stand for?

It stands for Unified Modeling Language.

Define the Use Case Model

Use case model shows a sequence of events and a stream of actions regarding any process performed by an actor.

As a business analyst, what steps do you usually take to complete a work project?

Each project requires a customised approach, but there are some fundamental steps that we can use across the board to see things to their successful completion. To give an example, I talk with the stakeholders, understand their expectations and the project objectives and create a management plan outlining all the project requirements during the initial planning stage. I also detail the work breakdown plan, listing the work steps we will take, the timelines for work completion and the deliverables.

I will list the technical solutions we will need to implement with the help of the IT team and the documentation we will need to create to help end-users. When the project starts, I will keep track of daily, weekly and monthly goals to ensure we will complete the work on the target day and I will also consider the steps we can take to improve the work process. I will also get regular feedback from my colleagues and the stakeholders.

How do you handle changes to requirements?

I prioritize the changes to requirements, scope of changes and the impact analysis to the project. Next, I perform an impact analysis to the project cost, timeline and resources. Finally, I evaluate whether the scope change is introducing new gaps to the technical or functional designs or development and testing.

Can you define the diagrams most used by business analysts?

Here again, with this type of question, the hiring manager wants reassurance you have the skills to get the job done and know case, activity and sequence diagrams.

What is requirement prioritization? What are the different techniques used for it?

Requirements prioritization is the process to allocate requirements based on the business urgency to different phases, schedule, cost, etc.

There are various techniques which are used for requirements prioritization:
.
1. MoSCoW Technique
2. Requirements Ranking Method
3. 100-dollar method
4. Kano Analysis & More
5. Five Whys

What is Gap Analysis?

Gap Analysis is a technique to analyze the gap between the existing system and functionalities, and the targeted system. Here gap means the amount of task or change that may be required to get the intended result. It’s a performance level comparison between the present and the proposed functionalities.

What do you know about CaaS?

CaaS, which is short for Communication as a Service, is a cloud-based solution that delivers Voice over IP (VoIP), Instant Messaging (IM) and video conferencing services to ensure economical communication. As the CaaS vendor provides the necessary software and hardware, the customer only has to pay for the service. The CaaS application platforms are scalable, making it convenient to get updates and introduce new features. Additionally, as the data centres are geographically dispersed, there are fewer risks of service disruptions.

What are the tasks and responsibilities of a Project Manager?

A Project Manager is responsible for taking decisions, controlling risks, and delivering the project on the stipulated time. His/her responsibilities include:

1. Defining the scope
2. Resource planning
3. Cost and budget estimation
4. Risk analysis
5. Quality control

What are the different phases of an IT project?

There are five phases in project management which include:
1. Project initiation
2. Project planning
3. Project execution
4. Project monitoring and control
5. Project closure

How do you perform risk management in your project?

A risk is defined as an uncertain event that causes a threat to the existing business, which can cause an impact on revenue or sometimes on the profits of a business. Risk-management techniques such as risk avoidance, reduction, transfer, and acceptance can be used. We have to identify, analyze, evaluate, and control the risk in a business.

Explain the business analysis process flow.

1. Information gathering
2. Identify the key stakeholders
3. Identify the business objective
4. Determine the available options
5. Scope the definition
6. Define the delivery plan
7. Define the requirements of the project
8. Implementation and evaluation

What are the different tools used in Business Analytics?

1. MS Office and SQL
2. Blueprint
3. Python and R
4. QlikView and Tableau
5. Axure

What is a feasibility study?

The requirements and problems of a business/project should be studied and understood by a BA, and he/she should set a scope for the business problem. The feasibility study is identifying the possibility (success rate) of the proposed idea for a business problem. It helps identify new opportunities and focus on the project.

What do you know about analytical reporting?

Analytical reporting involves collecting and analysing qualitative and quantitative business data and creating useful recommendations. The information will help you review your business strategy and take evidence-based decisions for improving it.

What is Scope creep and how can you avoid scope creep?

Scope creep, or requirement creep is a term that relates to the uncontrolled changes or deviation in the project’s scope within the same resource range for example within same schedule and budget of the project. It’s an indication of poor project management and a viable risk to a project.

Some of the possible causes of scope creep are:

<> Poor communication between the project’s stakeholders
<> Improper documentation of the project’s requirements

Scope creep could be avoided by:

<> Clear documentation about the project scope
<> Following proper change management
<> Prior intimation about the effects of the changes to the associated parties
<> Proper documentation of the new requirements in the project log
<> Refrain from Gold Plating which means adding extra features to the existing functionalities

What are the steps that you need to follow to design a use case?

The steps in designing use cases are:

* Identify the users of the system
* Creating a user profile for each category of users. This includes all roles that the users may play and relevant to the system.
* Identify essential goals associated with each role. Also, identifying the significant roles.
* Creating use cases for every goal associated for a use case template. This also includes maintaining the same abstraction level for the entire use case. Higher level use case steps are considered as goals for the lower level.
* Structuring the use cases
* Reviewing and validating the users

What is Use case?

A use case is a diagrammatic representation of a system which describes how a user uses a system to accomplish a goal. It is an integral part of software engineering and software modelling technique which defines the targeted features and the resolution of any possible errors which a user may encounter.

What is a requirement?

A requirement is a targeted solution to achieve specific business goals or objectives. It is an input to various stages of SDLC. This is a basis of a project which must be validated by the stakeholders and business users before implementation. Besides that, every requirement needs to be properly documented for future reference purpose.

What is SRS and what are its key elements?

A System Requirements Specification (SRS) or a Software Requirements Specification is a document or set of documents that describe the features of a system or software application. It includes a variety of elements which define the intended functionality required by the stakeholders and customer to satisfy the end users.

In addition to that, an SRS provides a high-level idea of the system and its behavior, the main supported business processes, the assumptions and the key performance parameters for the system. The key elements of an SRS are:

* Scope of Work
* Functional Requirements
* Non-Functional Requirements
* Dependencies
* Data Model
* Assumptions
* Constraints
* Acceptance Criteria

Did you ever have to work with a difficult stakeholder? How did you deal with the situation?

Yes, in my line of work, I have occasionally come across stakeholders that you might term as difficult. As these types of situations demand a positive collaboration, I make a point of meeting with them personally to build an individual relationship with them. I listen closely to what they say and try to understand their current business process, their problem areas and their motivation. I also try to find commonalities that we can explore.

Which business intelligence tools or systems have you worked with?

Cite the specific tools and how you've used them. If you have used a system the company employs, mention your experience to the hiring manager. If you're not familiar with the technology the employer uses, discuss how you plan to get up to speed quickly.

How have you handled difficult stakeholders?

The hiring manager is trying to assess your soft skills, particularly your communication and collaboration abilities. Working with people from different areas of the company and perspectives is an area where nontechnical skills are key.

Tell me about your typical project approach.

Rather than listing numerous projects and processes, talk more about the general phases or types of deliverables you might create, while letting the hiring manager know you can customize your approaches to projects.

What do you think are the key strengths of a business analyst?

Since business analysis is an evolving and multifaceted profession, hiring managers want to know that you are aware of the necessary skills for success. You probably have your own list, but make sure to highlight both technical and nontechnical attributes you can bring to the job.

The job description should provide clues as to what types of skills the employer is looking for on both fronts — especially technical requirements. Learning what you can about the company culture prior to the interview can also provide insight on interpersonal abilities that will likely be valued.

How do you see yourself fit for the role of business analyst in our company?

You can answer this question in two parts:

Firstly, focus on your education by stating relevant coursework related to the job.

Secondly, illustrate your experience, attitude, and skills that make you a good fit for the company.

You can give examples of the previous works that show the interviewer what benefits you will bring to the company. Make sure your answer has a problem and the solution you implemented.

Pro Tip: Make sure you also focus on the skills outlined in the job advertisement when you are highlighting and explaining your experience and competencies.

What is the role of a business analyst in an organization?

Business analyst is a liaison or a link between different stakeholders belonging to different domains in an organization. A business analyst should have the capabilities to fulfill the business objectives and balance the needs of various stakeholders.

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