AWS Redshift Interview Questions for freshers/AWS Redshift Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

What are Limits per Region in Amazon Redshift?

The maximum number of tables is 9,900 for large and xlarge cluster node types and 20,000 for 8xlarge cluster node types.

The number of user-defined databases you can create per cluster is 60.

The number of concurrent user connections that can be made to a cluster is 500.
The number of AWS accounts you can authorize to restore a snapshot is 20 for each snapshot and 100 for each AWS KMS key.

What are Database Querying Options available in Amazon Redshift?

Database Querying Options :

* Connect to your cluster through a SQL client tool using standard ODBC and JDBC connections.

* Connect to your cluster and run queries on the AWS Management Console with the Query Editor.

What is Amazon Redshift managed storage?

Amazon Redshift managed storage is available with RA3 node types which allows you to scale which pay for computing and storing separately so that you can configure your cluster based on your computing needs.
It automatically uses high-performance SSD-based local storage as a Tier-1 cache and takes advantage of optimizations such as data block temperature, data block age and workload patterns to deliver high performance while scaling storage automatically to Amazon S3 as required without requiring action.

What are benefits of Amazon Redshift?

AWS Redshift has below main benefits compare to other options :
1. AWS Redshift is easy to operation : you can find an choice to build a cluster in the AWS Redshift Console. Only press and leave the rest on the Redshift computer program. Just complete the correct information and start the cluster. The cluster is now ready to be used, for example to control, track and scale Redshift.

2. Cost Effective: Because there is no need to set up, the cost of this warehouse is reduced to 1/10th.

3. Scaling of Warehouse is very easy: You just have to resize the cluster size by increasing the number of compute nodes.

4. High performance: It uses such techniques such as column storage and large simultaneous processing techniques to produce high efficiency and responsiveness times.

How to connect a private Redshift cluster?

By selecting the option NO, you access for your private IP address within the VPC. Bu doing this, you execute the public IP address. Now, the way of its accessing is through the VPC.

One more method most of the people use to connect to a private database is by using the port forwarding by a Bastion server.

What is Amazon Redshift ODBC?

The Amazon Redshift ODBC Driver allows you to connect with live Amazon Redshift data, directly from applications that support ODBC connectivity. It is also helpful to read, write, and update Amazon Redshift data through a standard ODBC Driver interface.

How do we execute sql file on Redshift?

You can be done this job by using a simple Python script running on an EC2 to set up a JDBC connection to Redshift. When it is done, execute the queries in the your.SQL file

How can we find size of database, schema, table in redshift?

Amazon Redshift systems tables provides information about the user defined table .The tables are only visible to the super users, and its coloumn is the table's name.
Here is the command provided for making tables:
SELECT "table", size, tbl_rows FROM SVV_TABLE_INFO

What are the limitations of Amazon Redshift?

Redshift limitations are on the number of tables that we can create in a cluster by node type.
An Amazon Redshift table can't have more than 1600 columns.

What problems have you faced while working with Amazon Redshift?

* Majority of the people facing the problem of the queries which are very slow and take a lot of time answering it.
* Another problem that is seemed is on the dashboard. The dashboard is too slow.
* Another problem in the Amazon Redshift is “black box”. It is very difficult to observe ‘what’s going on’.

What is redshift spectrum?

Redshift Spectrum is one of the popular features of Amazon web services. It allows you to do complex analysis of data that is stored in AWS cloud faster. The redshift spectrum is perfect for a data analyst who is performing on SQL queries in the bucket of Amazon S3. For the purpose of analysis, one can easily load data to the cluster of Amazon redshift from Amazon S3. The two major reasons for using the redshift spectrum are, it is budget-friendly as the pricing is dependable on the size of the cluster and the efforts in loading data are a bit less than any other source. If we talk about the spectrum of redshift it is a kind of bridge for providing an interface between redshift and S3 data.

List some Pros and Cons of Amazon Redshift?

Pros of Amazon Redshift

It offers network isolation.
It offers result caching.
It integrates with third-party tools.
It offers a consistent backup for your data.

Cons of Amazon Redshift

It does not work as a live app database.
2. It is a little behind the times with its Postgre setup.
3. Your performance levels decrease as the clusters increase.
4. There are no stored procedures available to you in Amazon Redshift.

Does Amazon redshift based on concept cluster?

Amazon Redshift uses nodes; group of nodes are called cluster. Single cluster runs an Amazon Redshift and it has one or multiple number of databases.

How we can monitor the performance of Redshift data warehouse cluster.

Performance metric like compute and storage utilization, read/write traffic can be monitored via AWS Management Console or using CloudWatch.

What data formats does Redshift Spectrum support?

Redshift Spectrum currently supports for Avro, CSV, Grok, Ion, JSON, ORC, Parquet, RCFile, RegexSerDe, SequenceFile and Tex.

How is Amazon RDS, DynamoDB and Redshift different?

Amazon RDS is a database management service for relational databases, it manages patching, upgrading, backing up of data etc. of databases for you without your intervention. RDS is a Db management service for structured data only.

DynamoDB, on the other hand, is a NoSQL database service, NoSQL deals with unstructured data.

Redshift is an entirely different service, it is a data warehouse product and is used in data analysis.

What are the ideal cases for using the Classic Load Balancer and the Application Load Balancer?

The Classic Load Balancer is the befitting option for simple load balancing of traffic across several EC2 instances.



On the contrary, the Application Load Balancer is suitable for container-based or microservices architecture where there is either a requirement for routing traffic to different services or carrying out load balancing across multiple ports on the same EC2 instance.

How do we load data into Redshift?

Data is loaded from S3, DynamoDB, DMS and Read Replicas in RDS for example, when you have a RBS database but you want to do analytics on it to create a read replica, to pull that data from the read replica into Redshift and to do the analytics into Redshift.

Is Redshift a row-based storage or columnar based?

Redshift supports columnar data storage (instead of row based) which makes it good for analytical processing not for transactional processing.

PostgreSQL, RDS, MySQL supports row-based storage of data.

How far Redshift is better in performance as compare to other data warehouse technologies?

Redshift provides ten times better performance than other data warehouse technologies and Redshift is meant to scale 2 petabytes of data. So petabytes, 1 petabyte is 1000 terabytes, means a lot of data.

How will I be charged and billed if I use Amazon Redshift?

You pay only for what you use, and there are no minimum or setup fees. Billing commences for a data warehouse cluster as soon as the data warehouse cluster is available. Billing continues until the data warehouse cluster terminates, which would occur upon deletion or in the event of instance failure. You are billed based on:

• Compute Node Hours

• Backup Storage

• Data Transfer

• Data Scanned

What is Redshift Enhanced VPC Routing?

If you enable Redshift Enhanced VPC Routing feature , all the COPY of data from whatever storage you want into Redshift, or UNLOAD from Redshift back to S3 , goes through VPC which gives you enhanced security and maybe better performance as well as your data doesn’t go over the public internet.

How many types of nodes supported by Redshift and what are the functions of nodes?

Redshift supports 2 nodes -leader node and compute node. There is a leader node and the leader node is used to planning the queries and aggregate results across all compute nodes. So the compute nodes are going to actually be performing the queries and they will send the results back to the leader. If you have one node, then that node is both a leader node and a compute node.

What is MPP. Is Redshift support MPP?

MPP stands for massively parallel query execution .It’s highly distributed, when you run a query, it’s going to run it in parallel across so many instances and so many cores .And as such it’s called a massively parallel query execution which in turns makes the database highly available.

How to show tables in Amazon Redshift?

Below is the command to list tables in a public schema:

SELECT DISTINCT tablename

FROM pg_table_def

WHERE schemaname = 'public'

ORDER BY tablename;

Below is the command to describe the columns from a table called table_data

SELECT *

FROM pg_table_def

WHERE tablename = 'table_data'

AND schemaname = 'public';

What are the purpose of using AWS Redshift database ?

Amazon Redshift is known as a managed petabyte scale data warehouse service which is used in cloud and can be started just a few gigabytes of data and scale to a petabyte or more.It is used for enabling us for using our data for aquiring new insights for our business and customers.

Explain the architecture of Amazon Redshift?

An Amazon Redshift data repository is a business-class relational database query and administration system. It provides connection of clients with a great number of applications including reporting, business intelligent (BI) and analytics tools.

Amazon Redshift has great storage and excellent query performance with an aggregation of column data storage, massively parallel processing, targeted data compression encoding schemes. It is all about the architecture of Redshift system architecture.

Is Redshift similar to RDS?

Redshift is a heavily version of PostgreSQL, it’s not used for OLTP.OLTP remember is online transaction processing.So Redshift is not a replacement for RDS.Redshift is OLAP, OLAP stands for online analytical processing.That means that Redshift is used for analytics and data warehousing.

What are the important Features of Redshift?

• Operations : Similar to RDS

• Security : IAM,KMS ,VPC,SSL(similar to RDS)

• Redshift provides 10times more performance compare to other warehouse services.

• Redshift is highly available and have auto healing feature.

• Redshift provides pay per node provisioned, 1/10th of the cost compare to other data warehouse services.

What are the benefits of using AWS Redshift?

• We can run multiple queries on multiple nodes.

• We can use Postgresql, ODBC and JDBC.

• Automated backup

• Built-in security.

• When applications requires analytical function.

• Cost effective compared to traditional data warehousing technique.

How will you load data to Amazon Redshift from different data sources such as Amazon EC2, DynamoDB, and Amazon RDS?

There are two ways of loading data to Amazon Redshift from different data sources, namely:

1. Using the AWS Data Pipeline – Offers high performance, fault-tolerant, and reliable way of loading data from a range of AWS data sources. It allows specifying the data source, required data transformations, and then execute a pre-written import script for loading data.

2. Using the COPY command – Load data in parallel directly from Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon EMR, or any other SSH-enabled host.

What is Amazon Redshift?

Amazon Redshift is a fully managed, petabyte-scale data warehouse service in the cloud. This enables you to use your data to acquire new insights for your business and customers. It is a data warehouse product which forms part of the larger cloud-computing platform Amazon Web Services. The name means to shift away from Oracle, red being an allusion to Oracle, whose corporate color is red and is informally referred to as "Big Red." It is built on top of technology from the massive parallel processing (MPP) data warehouse company ParAccel (later acquired by Actian), to handle large scale data sets and database migrations.

What is Redshift in AWS?

Redshift in AWS is a big data warehouse product that is fast and powerful enough to manage data warehouse service in the cloud. Redshift is a petabyte-scale data repository service. The execution is cost effective and simple to investigate efficiently all over the data. It employs the present intelligence marketing devices which accomplish at high speed and are completely controllable.

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