Lightning Aura Interview Questions for Freshers/Lightning Aura Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

How will you define field-level security in Lightning components?

You will require to use Lightning: recordForm, Lightning: recordEditForm, Lightning: recordViewForm, force: recordData.

What is the importance of the aura: method tag in the Salesforce Lightning?

We use the aura: a method for defining the method within the API of the component. This allows us to call a method directly in the client-side controller of a component rather than handling or dismissing an event. Through <aura: method>, we can simplify the code which the parent component requires for calling a method on the child component.

Explain @AuraEnabled Annotation?

The AuraEnabled annotation allows the lightning components for accessing the Apex properties and methods. AuraEnabled annotation is overloaded, and we use it for distinct purposes.

1. We use AuraEnabled on the Apex class static methods for making them accessible like remote controller actions in our lightning components.

2. We use @AuraEnabled on the Apex Instance methods and properties for making them serializable when we return the class instance like the data from the server-side action.

Is there a difference between Visualforce and Lightning components?

The major differentiation lies in the fact that Lightning components are built based on the component framework, they are well-adapted to mobile, and are centered around the client. On the other hand, Visualforce components revolve around the page itself with the server being the place where the majority of work takes place.

In which cases should you use Application Events and when are Component Events preferable?

In general, it is considered good practice to give preference to Component Events over Application Events. Application Events are used for signaling a message to a broader audience, whereas Component Events are tied to a hierarchy and can limit receiving the message to only those components that should be notified about it.

What is the key difference between Application and Component Events?

Yes, multiple libraries can be used such as JavaScript/CSS libraries, jQuery, Bootstrap, etc from a local, static resource.

What are the propagation phases of Application Events?

Three phases are available for application event propagation when the event fires: capture phase, bubble phase, and default phase.

What are the propagation phases of Component Events?

Two phases are available for component event propagation after the event fires: capture phase and bubble phase.

Can Aura Components be included in Lightning Web Components and vice versa?

Aura components can’t be included in a Lightning Web component because it isn’t possible to add generic elements to custom components (in other words, a parent Lightning Web component can only be made up of Lightning Web components). Nevertheless, by contrast, you may include Lightning Web components into Aura components (i.e. parent Aura components can contain both Aura Components and LWC). Moreover, they can handle each other’s events.

Are Lightning components meant only for mobile apps?

With a responsive design in mind, Lightning components are meant to be mobile-first. The components help to build responsive apps faster for desktops, tablets, and mobile.

Differentiate Component Event and Application Event?

We use the component event for interaction between the parent and child. We can communicate the change in the child component to the parent component through the component event. We use Application events to send any modification in the component to a wide audience. The components registered for this event will get an alert.

How can the wire service be used with Apex?

As with all Apex to be used within any Lightning component, the methods must first be set to be “Aura Enabled”, using the Apex annotation “@AuraEnabled”, exposing the method to the Lightning components. Furthermore, the annotation must be expanded to state that it is cacheable like “@AuraEnabled(cacheable=true)”. This annotation disables all DML operations, meaning the method only returns data, never mutates it. The method can then be imported into the LWC, like any other, and used as a wire adapter.

What is the wire service?

The wire service is a data provisioning service which streams new data as it becomes available. It supports reactive variables, allowing new data to be provisioned as the context changes. The source of the data can either be from a Salesforce module, or a developer defined Apex class.

What are the different types of Lightning Record pages, and how can we build them?

By using Lightning App Builder, we can create lightning record pages. Following are different types of lightning record pages:

1. Record page

2. App page

3. Home page

How can we utilize a lightning component in the VisualForce Page?

By using Lightning out, we can embed the lightning component on the VisualForce page. We can add the lightning component to the VisualForce page in three steps:

1. First, we must insert the lightning components for the javascript library of visual force to our intent visual force page through the tag.

2. After that, we can generate and point a lightning app that we use for the component dependencies.

3. Finally, we have to write a javascript function that creates the component over the page through $Lightning.createComponent().

Explain Attributes, and what are the required parameters in the attribute definition?

Attributes are variables that we use for storing the values. We must define the Default, Type, Name, Access, and Description in the attribute definition. In the attribute definition, only Name and Type are the required parameters.

Explain Lightning out?

If we want to use our component on the external site, we have to use lightning out. The advantage of lightning out is we can utilize lightning components in a visual force page.

How can we apply custom styles?

When the style classes provided by SLDS don’t meet our requirements, we are still able to provide our own styles to achieve what we need in both Aura and LWC. The process is pretty similar in both frameworks: we create a CSS file which matches the name of the component in its folder and place our styles there. In LWC, the styles of our components are completely encapsulated and don’t overflow into other components. In Aura we prefix all our styles with ‘.THIS’, but our styles can affect child components.

How can we manage our events to improve the User Experience?

In situations where an event can be frequently fired based on a user interaction, it’s important we handle those events in a specific way so as to not cause a detrimental impact to the user’s experience. A good example for this is a search bar which filters a list when a user types into it, if we were handling the ‘onchange’ event, we would end up filtering after every keypress and this would cause the search to appear sluggish to the user. Instead what we want to do is set a timeout after every keypress, if the user continues to type within a small time frame (say 500ms), we simply cancel the previous timeout and start a new one. Now we only take the performance hit when we know the user has done something valid and the filtering appears smooth. This technique is called debouncing.

Name the phrases in application events propagation?

Some of them are:

* Default phase
* Bubble phase
* Capture Phase

Name the phrases in application events propagation?

Some of them are:

* Default phase
* Bubble phase
* Capture Phase

Where can Lightning components be applied?

Lightning components can be used in frequent places, including the Lightning App Builder and Community designer, in divide separate applications, as well as in Lightning Experience Record Pages, Lightning Pages etc. The advantage they could also be displayed in the direction-finding bar, in the App Launcher, and as a Quick act.

Can we make a Lightning Component that shows up in both the mobile and the desktop user interfaces?

Lightning component is lightning experience ready by default and is also compatible in Salesforce1 App, it has a responsive layout therefore it adjust its resolution according the screen size and therefore can be used on desktop as well without writing any separate code.

When should component events and application events be used?

It is always a good idea to use a component event over an application event. Component events can be handled only by the components which are above them in the hierarchy of containment. Thus, the usage is limited to the components which need to know them.

Application events are best used when something is handled at the application level, like navigating to a particular record. Application events permit any communication between the components which are in separate parts of the application and have no direct containment relationship.

What is the difference between the component event and the application event?

Component Events: these are used when the parent and child need to communicate. They make use of bubbling and capture, just like it is used in DOM events. A change in a child component will be communicated to the parent component through the component event.

Application Events: these are basically used for communicating any kind of change in the component to a larger audience. Any component which has been registered for this event will get notified.

What is “Aura”? When is the method applicable?

Aura is an open-source framework which is one of the ways to create Lightning components that are reusable units. This original programming model is thought to be the “basics” for building components. The other more modern method, Lightning Web Component, is very different from it. The process of migrating Aura components to Lightning Web components isn’t linear, therefore it makes sense to apply Lightning Web for making new components and sticking with the Aura components for older ones that you already have in Aura.

Using what can you build Lightning components?

Lightning components can be created in two possible ways: either with the Lightning Web Components model (which uses JavaScript and custom HTML) or the Aura Components programming model (that are basic pre-built and reusable units). Importantly, both the component types can be applicable side-by-side on a single page or app.

Can the Lightning framework be considered MVC?

It isn’t right to call Salesforce Lightning a model-view-controller framework as it is component-based.

What is the purpose of using Aura: method Tag in Lightning?

The Aura: method tag can be used for defining a method for component API. So, there is no need to fire and handle a component event, and it allows us to directly invoke the method in the component’s controller on the client-side. It also helps to simplify the code required for a parent component to call a method on a child component that forms a part of the parent component.

Can we create one component for inheriting style/CSS from the parent or we need to always define it in the Salesforce component?

Of course, we can do this. The styles can be inherited from parents and not necessarily defined in the component.

What are the component bundles of the lightning components?

Following are the component bundles of the lightning components:

Controller: Controller tackles the client-side events.

Style: It includes component style.

Documentation: We use this component bundle for recording the component’s use.

Renderer: The renderer component bundle contains a component default rendering behavior.

Helper: we can write the general logic in the helper that is used by various controller methods to avoid repetition.

What is Lightning Data Service?

We use lightning data service for creating, deleting, editing, or loading a record in our component without Apex code. It handles field-level security and sharing rules. Lightning data service enhances the user interface and performance consistency. The lightning data service's main advantage is we can carry out basic tasks without Apex code.

How can we reuse code between our components?

To share code between Aura components, we create a service component. This is an Aura component which uses “aura:method” to expose the pieces of code which are to be shared. This component can then be included in other components and the shared pieces of code called.

For LWC, the process is simpler, we can create EcmaScript Modules. These are essentially JavaScript files which use the “export” keyword to export specific functions or variables we have defined. These can then be imported in the same manner we import Salesforce modules and freely used by our component.

How do the two programming models coexist?

Aura components can contain and utilise LWCs, including communicating with them via events and component methods. However, the opposite is not true, an LWC cannot be composed of Aura components, and they can only ever be its parent.

Code can also be shared between Aura and LWC components using an ES Module.

Explain the Lightning design system?

The lightning design system provides style guides and advanced UX best practices for building pixel-perfect applications that match the feel and look of the salesforce1 mobile app and lightning experience.

Explain the Aura application bundle?

A bundle includes Aura definitions and their associated resources. The aura definition can be an application, interface, component, and event. Aura Definition Bundle element is a folder that includes definition files, contrary to other metadata components, the aura definition bundle component is not a single file; it is a group of files.

Explain different types of events of Salesforce lightning components?

Following are the different types of events of salesforce lightning components:

> System Events: During the lightning app lifecycle, salesforce fires the system events.

> Application Event: The application event extent is across the lightning application, and any element that has enrolled for his event will get an alert.

> Component Event: The component event scope is within itself, or within the parent component of this event, all the parent components will get an alert.

Explain Lightning experience?

Lightning experience is the name for the latest salesforce desktop application, with the latest features, developed with an advanced User Interface(UI) and speed optimization.

What is Aura, and what is the use of aura: namespace?

Aura is a freeware technology that powers the lightning components. Aura: namespace comprises all the main building blocks to define applications and components.

How to add Aura components to your Visualforce page?

The developer can add the Aura components to the Visualforce page in the following three ways:

* Use the <apex:includeLightning/> component and add the Lightning component for the Visualforce JavaScript library used in your Visualforce page.
* Create a reference to a Lightning app for declaring component dependencies.
* Use the $Lightning.createComponent() to create the component for a page by writing a JavaScript function

What are the differences between Lightning and Visualforce components?

Visualforce components are page-centric and work is mostly server-based. Lightning components, on the other hand, are client-side centric which accounts for their dynamic, mobile-friendly nature.

Which Lightning components parts are server-side and which ones are client-side?

For the Lightning component, the client-side is the component page acting as a JavaScript controller, on the contrary, the server-side acts as an Apex Controller.

Can Lightning be viewed as an MVC framework?

Not really. Lightning is a framework based on components.

Does Lightning Component work with Visualforce?

Yes, it does work with Visualforce.

Can a Lightning component be used that works with both interfaces – Mobile and Desktop?

It is possible to use Lightning components, Salesforce 1 mobile app, custom standalone apps directly in Lightning Experience as well as template-based communities. Lightning components are used in the Visualforce page, for use in Salesforce Visualforce communities as well as the classic environment.

How does Salesforce 1 Mobile app use Lightning components?

We first create a Lightning tab for the Lightning component and subsequently include the tab in the navigation select list of Salesforce 1 mobile app and then the newly created tab to it.

Where to use Lightning Components?

The Lightning components can be used in the following ways:

* Drag-and-drop components are meant for the Lightning App Builder and Community Builder.
* Add Lightning Components for Lightning Pages.
* Add Lightning Components for Lightning Experience Record Pages.
* Launch a Quick-action Lightning Component.
* Overrule the Lightning Component’s standard actions.
* Create custom applications

What are the components in the Lightning component framework?

The components act as functional units of the Lightning component framework. A reusable, modular section of UI is encapsulated within the components. They can range from a single line of text up to the entire application in terms of granularity.

List the major advantages of Salesforce Lightning.

From the admin side, the Lightning version provides various customization leverages, including the framework with reusable low-code blocks that admins can use to build components and put them on multiple pages via easy drag and drop. Plus, the Appexchange offers many off-the-rack plugins, components, and applications that can be plugged in from the Appexchange.

What’s Salesforce Lightning?

Lightning is an enhanced and upgraded Salesforce platform version that was created for simplifying the process of building apps, quickly customizing the ecosystem to boost the efficiency and productivity of internal users and their work, as well as for connecting with customers and making their experience better.

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