The main aim of the Behavior Driven Development framework is to make various project roles such as Business Analysts, Quality Assurance, Developers, etc., understand the application without diving deep into the technical aspects.
Features/ support file contains supporting ruby code. Files in support load before those in step_definitions, which can be useful for environment configuration.
A regular expression is a pattern describing a certain amount of text. The most basic regular expression consists of a single literal character.
Gherkin language is used to express scenario in feature files and ruby files containing unobtrusive automation testing for the steps in scenarios
RSpec and Cucumber are two examples of testing frameworks. Traditional Unit Testing is used by RSpec. It refers to the practice of testing a section of an application separately from the remaining part of the application. As a result, your model performs what it's expected to do, the controller does what it's expected to do, and so on. Both RSpec and Cucumber are used for Acceptance Testing, also known as ATDD, BDD, and other terms.
The following are the major differences between RSpec and Cucumber:-
>> The fundamental distinction between RSpec and Cucumber is the element of business readability.
>> Unit testing is the primary purpose of RSpec. Cucumber, on the other hand, is primarily utilized in behavior-driven development. It can be used for System and Integration Testing as well.
>> Cucumber separates the specs or features from the test code, allowing product owners to provide or review the specification without having to walk through the code.
>> RSpec includes a similar method, but instead of elaborating a step with a Describe, it executes the statement using the business specification. This method is easier for developers to use, but a little more difficult for non-technical people.
There are majorly three steps in the working of BDD. They are as follows:-
* Behaviour Description: We list down the features of our application first in the feature file.
* Making the Step Definition file: The mapping between each step of the scenario defined in the feature file and a code of the function to be executed is stored in the steps definition file.
* Testing and running: We run the test cases to check if we pass. In general, a lot of failures are observed before achieving the final code.
Cucumber supports a variety of programming languages, including Java,.NET, Ruby, and others. It can also be used with other tools like Capybara and Selenium.
The Gherkin text serves as a skeleton for your automated tests and serves as documentation. Gherkin is based on TreeTop Grammar, which is used in more than 37 languages. As a result, you can write your gherkin in more than 37 different spoken languages.
When testing a feature, cucumber profiles make it simple to define groupings of tests in a feature file so that we can choose to execute only a subset of them rather than all of them. It was created to help people save time. In a cucumber.yml file, the user can reuse commonly used cucumber flags.
The purpose of the Cucumber dry run is to verify compilation faults and compile the Step Definition and Feature files. Dry run's value might be either true or false. Dry run has the value false by default and it is present in the Test Runner Class file.
If the dry run value is true, Cucumber will check all steps in the Feature file. Within the Step Definition file, it will also check the implementation code of steps in the Feature file.
If any of the steps in the Feature file is missing its implementation in the Step Definition file, a message is thrown. The @CucumberOptions has a dry run parameter that is used to configure the test parameters.
When we only have one, two, or maybe five situations in a feature file, it appears to be simple. In reality, however, this does not occur. In a single feature file, we may have 10, 20, or even more scenarios for each feature under test. They could reflect various purposes (smoke test/regression test), perspectives (developer/QA/BA), and statuses (ready for execution/work in progress).
Tags in cucumber provide a way to run scenarios in a specific sequence from a runner file. Each situation can be labeled with a useful tag. Later, in the runner file, we may specify which tag (and hence which scenario(s)) Cucumber should run. “@” is the first character in a tag. Any relevant content after "@" can be used to define your tag.
Example - ‘@InitialTest’
TestRunner class is used to provide the link between the feature file and the step definition file. The next question provides a sample representation of how the TestRunner class will look like. A TestRunner class is generally an empty class with no class definition.
Cucumber Natural Plugin is the plugin that is used to integrate Eclipse with Cucumber.
>> “Given” keyword is used to specify a precondition for the scenario.
>> “When” keyword is used to specify an operation to be performed.
>> “Then” keyword is used to specify the expected result of a performed action.
>> “And” keyword is used to join one or more statements together into a single statement.
The advantages of Behavior Driven Development are best realized when non-technical users such as Business Analysts use BDD to draft requirements and provide the same to the developers for implementation.
In Agile methodology, user stories can be written in the format of feature file and the same can be taken up for implementation by the developers.
Cucumber tool is generally used in real-time to write acceptance tests for an application. It is generally used by non-technical people such as Business Analysts, Functional Testers, etc.
Cucumber Options tag is used to provide a link between the feature files and step definition files. Each step of the feature file is mapped to a corresponding method on the step definition file.
Below is the syntax of Cucumber Options tag:
File Extension for a feature file is .feature. A feature file is ideally written in a notepad file and is saved with the extension feature.
Although Cucumber and Jbehave are meant for the same purpose, acceptance tests are completely different frameworks
* Jbehave is, and Cucumber is Ruby-based
* Jbehave are based on stories while Cucumber is based on features
Examples keyword is used to specify values for each parameter used in the scenario. Scenario Outline keyword must always be followed by the keyword Examples.
Pipe symbol (|) is used to specify one or more parameter values in a feature file.
Background keyword is used to group multiple given statements into a single group. This is generally used when the same set of given statements are repeated in each scenario of the feature file.
A feature file can contain a maximum of 10 scenarios, but the number can vary from project to project and from one organization to another. But it is generally advisable to limit the number of scenarios included in the feature file.
BDD is a methodology to understand the functionality of an application in the simple plain text representation.
The main aim of the Behavior Driven Development framework is to make various project roles such as Business Analysts, Quality Assurance, Developers, Support Teams understand the application without diving deep into the technical aspects.
Following is an example of a feature file for the scenario ‘Login into the application’:
Feature: Login to the application under test.
Scenario: Login to the application.
* Open the Chrome browser and launch the application.
* When the user enters the username onto the UserName field.
* And User enters the password into the Password field.
* When the user clicks on the Login button.
* Then validate if the user login is successful.
Given below are the advantages of the Cucumber Gherkin framework that make Cucumber an ideal choice for rapidly evolving Agile methodology in today’s corporate world.
* Cucumber is an open-source tool.
* Plain Text representation makes it easier for non-technical users to understand the scenarios.
* It bridges the communication gap between various project stakeholders such as Business Analysts, Developers, and Quality Assurance personnel.
* Automation test cases developed using the Cucumber tool are easier to maintain and understand as well.
* Easy to integrate with other tools such as Selenium and Capybara.
A step definition file in Cucumber is used to segregate the feature files from the underlying code. Each step of the feature file can be mapped to a corresponding method on the Step Definition file.
The advantages of using Cucumbers Are as follows:
* Cucumber Testing enhances the end-user experience
* It helps to include business stakeholder who cannot read the code easily
* Allows quick and easy setup and execution
* Style of writing tests enables easy reuse of code in the tests
Features/support file includes ruby code. These files load before the step_definitions, which can be used for environment configuration.
Gherkin language is used for expressing scenario in feature files and ruby files, including hidden automation testing for the sequence in scenarios.
Step definition is used to map the Test Case Steps in the feature files to code. It runs the steps using Application Under Test (AUT) and verifies the outcomes against the required results. To execute step definition, it must be related to the given component in a feature.
Feature file and step definition file are used to run a cucumber test.
A test harness for Cucumber and RSpec enables a separate responsibility between the context setup and interacting with the browser cleaning up the step definition files.
A regular expression is a pattern used to describe an amount of text. The standard Regular expression includes a single literal character.
The following are the software required to run a Cucumber Web Test case:
* Ruby and its Development Kit
* IDE like ActiveState
* Watir (To simulate browser)
* RSpec and Ansicon (if needed)
A feature file offers a high-level description of an Application Under Test (AUT). It consists of the following components:
>> Feature: It defines the implementation of the current test script.
>> Scenario: It is the expected outcome and steps for a specific test case.
>> Scenario outline: It can be executed for multiple sets of data.
>> Given: It defines the context of the text to be implemented.
>> When: It specifies the test action that has to perform.
>> Then: The expected outcome of a test can be represented by “Then.”
Step definitions connect Gherkin steps to programming code. The mapping between each step of the scenario defined in the feature file and a code of the function to be executed is stored in the steps definition file. A step definition carries out the action that should be performed by the step. So step definitions hard-wire the specification to the implementation.
We need the following minimum requirements to successfully run a Cucumber Web test case:-
1. The compiler and the development kit for the programming language we will be using. Example: JDK and JRE for using Java as our programming language.
2. An IDE (Integrated Development Environment) wherein we can write our code. Example: Eclipse.
3. Build tools so as to do tasks such as compiling code, packaging code to a jar, creating source code.
Example: Maven, Gradle.
Scenario outline is a way of parameterization of scenarios. This is ideally used when the same scenario needs to be executed for multiple sets of data, however, the test steps remain the same. Scenario Outline must be followed by the keyword ‘Examples’, which specify the set of values for each parameter.
A feature file must provide a high-level description of an Application Under Test (AUT). The first line of the feature file must start with the keyword ‘Feature’ followed by the description of the application under test.
A feature file may include multiple scenarios within the same file. A feature file has the extension .feature.
Consider the situation when we need to run a test scenario multiple times. Assume we need to ensure that the login feature is functional for all types of subscribers. This necessitates repeating the login functionality scenario. Copying and pasting the identical instructions to just re-run the code does not appear to be a good approach. Gherkin adds another framework, the scenario outline, to help with this. The scenario outline is similar to scenario, with the exception that several inputs are provided.
Scenario Outline - Sign In Feature for a website.
Explanation: The website can have multiple users and so we need to consider all the users while implementing the sign-in functionality.
Scenario is a fundamental Gherkin structure. Every scenario begins with the keyword "Scenario:" (or a localized version of it) and ends with a scenario title. Every feature can have one or more scenarios, each of which has one or more steps.
As an example of a scenario, consider the following:
Scenario − Verify My Orders Functionality.
Explanation: When a user clicks on the My Orders option he/ she should be taken to the My Orders page.
Cucumber understands Gherkin. It's a straightforward English representation of the app's functionality. It is used for defining test cases. It is intended to be non-technical and human-readable, and it describes use cases for a software system as a whole. It's a domain-specific (DSL), business-friendly language.
Following are the primary keywords in Cucumber:-
* Feature: The Feature keyword's aim is to collect relevant scenarios and provide a high-level description of a software feature.
* Rule: The Rule keyword is used to express a single business rule that should be followed. It adds to the information about a feature.
* Example: This is a practical illustration of a business rule. It comprises a series of steps.
* Given: The given steps are used to describe the system's initial context - the scenario's scene. It usually refers to an event that occurred in the past.
* When: When describing an occurrence or an action, When is employed. It could be a user interacting with the system or an event generated by another system.
* Then: Then steps are employed to indicate an anticipated outcome, or result.
* Background: A background helps you to give the situations that follow it some context. It can have one or more Given steps, which are executed prior to each scenario but after any Before hooks.
Behaviour Driven Development (BDD) is a synthesis and refinement of practices stemming from Test Driven Development (TDD) and Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATDD). BDD augments TDD and ATDD by applying the “Five Why’s” principle to each proposed user story so that its purpose is clearly related to business outcomes. Five Why's is an iterative interrogative approach for uncovering the cause-and-effect links at the root of a problem.
Gherkin is a readable business language that allows you to define business activity without getting bogged down in implementation specifics. It's a domain-specific language for defining specs tests in Cucumber format. It describes use cases in plain English and helps users to remove logic elements from behaviour testing.
A step definition is the actual code implementation of the feature mentioned in the feature file.
The Two main files used to run a Cucumber test scenario are
* Step Definition
Profile in cucumber allows a way to define a group of tests in a feature file to run a selected group instead of executing all the commands while testing a feature. Cucumber profiles allow running step definitions and features.
Use the command below to run the cucumber profile.
Cucumber features -p<profile_name>
Cucumber is an automation testing framework based on Behavior Development (BDD) methodology, which tests software applications without any programming skills. It increases the quality of testing and reduces the difficulty.
The Cucumber is an open-source tool that supports the English language specifications required for testing. Other technical methods to use the programming languages are .NET, Java, and other platforms. The cucumber specifications include various scenarios and examples.
Behavior-driven development (BDD) is developing software based on Test Driven Development (TDD) that focuses on the behavioral specification of software testing units.