Gherkin Interview Questions for Freshers/Gherkin Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

What is the limit for the maximum number of scenarios that can be included in the feature file?

A feature file can contain a maximum of 10 scenarios, but the number can vary from project to project and from one organization to another. But it is generally advisable to limit the number of scenarios included in the feature file.

How can you run a selected test from a group of tests in Cucumber?

We may execute a single test from a set of tests in the Cucumber framework using the tags idea. This is found in the TestRunner file's @CucumberOptions section. With the use of the @t<agname> keyword, we may tag a scenario in the feature file. A scenario can have one or more tags within the feature file. We can separate test scenarios with the assistance of tagging. We must pass the <tagname> value within the tags argument to execute a selected test in Cucumber, and we must pass the <~tagname> value within the tags parameter to exclude a test from running.

Difference between JBehave and Cucumber.

Despite the fact that Cucumber and JBehave have the same goal in mind, acceptance tests are two quite distinct frameworks:

* Cucumber is built on Ruby, while JBehave is a pure Java Framework.
* Cucumber is built on features, whereas JBehave is based on stories.

How can you generate reports using Cucumber?

You can generate the output/report of the cucumber using different cucumber commands.

>cucumber adding.feature --format HTML

>cucumber adding.feature --out report.html

>cucumber adding.feature --format pretty

The report file will be stored in the project folder itself.

How can you run Cucumber tests parallelly?

The Cucumber JVM Parallel Plugin, which may be used with Serenity BDD, can be used to conduct parallel tests in Cucumber. The plugin will look in the src/test/resources directory for feature files. After that, it will create runners for each file.

What is grouping in the context of Cucumber?

Cucumber is unconcerned about the names of your step definition files or the order in which you place them. Instead of maintaining all steps in a single file, we can create steps.rb file for each major action/feature. This is referred to as grouping.

How does the execution start in Cucumber?

Cucumber execution will begin at the support level. In support, it will first load the env.rb file, then hooks.rb, and last start executing feature file scenario steps.

What do you mean by Test Driven Development (TDD)?

TDD is an abbreviation that stands for Test-Driven Development. This is a development practice in which the test cases are created first, followed by the code that underpins the test cases. TDD may also be used to construct automation testing. TDD takes longer to develop due to the fact that it finds fewer flaws. The TDD development practice has increased the quality of code, which is more reusable and flexible as a result. TDD also aids developers in achieving high test coverage, ranging from 90% to 100%. The sole disadvantage of TDD for developers is that they must build test cases before producing code.

In a feature file, what is the maximum number of scenarios?

A feature file in Cucumber can include a maximum of 10 scenarios. This quantity can differ from one project to the next and from one organization to the next. It's advisable to keep the number of scenarios in the feature file to a minimum.

Why do we need to use Cucumber with Selenium?

Cucumber and Selenium are two widely used testing frameworks and technologies. Selenium is widely used for functional testing in many organizations. These companies use Cucumber in conjunction with Selenium because Cucumber makes the application flow easier to read and comprehend. The most important advantage of combining Cucumber and Selenium is that it allows developers to build test cases in simple feature files that managers, non-technical stakeholders, and business analysts can understand. It allows you to develop tests in Gherkin, a human-readable programming language. Java,.NET, PHP, Python, Perl, and other programming languages are supported by the Selenium-Cucumber framework.

Difference between Selenium and Cucumber.

Open-source testing tools, Selenium and Cucumber are both used for functional testing. However, there are some distinctions between them.

Here are some key distinctions between Selenium and Cucumber:

* Cucumber is a behavior-driven development automation tool that may be used with Selenium. Selenium is a web browser automation tool for web projects (or Appium).
* Cucumber is used for acceptance testing, while Selenium is used for automated UI testing.
* Technical teams (SDETs/programmers) favour Selenium, while non-technical teams often choose Cucumber (business stakeholders and testers).
* Cucumber isn't required for Selenium to work. Cucumber's step-definition implementation is based on Selenium or Appium.
* The script creation with Selenium is complicated, whereas Cucumber is straightforward.

What is the difference between RSpec and Cucumber?

RSpec and Cucumber are two examples of testing frameworks. Traditional Unit Testing is used by RSpec. It refers to the practice of testing a section of an application separately from the remaining part of the application. As a result, your model performs what it's expected to do, the controller does what it's expected to do, and so on. Both RSpec and Cucumber are used for Acceptance Testing, also known as ATDD, BDD, and other terms.
The following are the major differences between RSpec and Cucumber:-

* The fundamental distinction between RSpec and Cucumber is the element of business readability.
* Unit testing is the primary purpose of RSpec. Cucumber, on the other hand, is primarily utilized in behavior-driven development. It can be used for System and Integration Testing as well.
* Cucumber separates the specs or features from the test code, allowing product owners to provide or review the specification without having to walk through the code.
* RSpec includes a similar method, but instead of elaborating a step with a Describe, it executes the statement using the business specification. This method is easier for developers to use, but a little more difficult for non-technical people.

Explain briefly how Behavioral Driven Development works?

There are majorly three steps in the working of BDD. They are as follows:-

Behaviour Description: We list down the features of our application first in the feature file.
Making the Step Definition file: The mapping between each step of the scenario defined in the feature file and a code of the function to be executed is stored in the steps definition file.
Testing and running: We run the test cases to check if we pass. In general, a lot of failures are observed before achieving the final code.

What programming languages are used by Cucumber?

Cucumber supports a variety of programming languages, including Java,.NET, Ruby, and others. It can also be used with other tools like Capybara and Selenium.

The Gherkin text serves as a skeleton for your automated tests and serves as documentation. Gherkin is based on TreeTop Grammar, which is used in more than 37 languages. As a result, you can write your gherkin in more than 37 different spoken languages.

What do you mean by profile in Cucumber?

When testing a feature, cucumber profiles make it simple to define groupings of tests in a feature file so that we can choose to execute only a subset of them rather than all of them. It was created to help people save time. In a cucumber.yml file, the user can reuse commonly used cucumber flags.

What is Cucumber Dry Run?

The purpose of the Cucumber dry run is to verify compilation faults and compile the Step Definition and Feature files. Dry run's value might be either true or false. Dry run has the value false by default and it is present in the Test Runner Class file.

If the dry run value is true, Cucumber will check all steps in the Feature file. Within the Step Definition file, it will also check the implementation code of steps in the Feature file.

If any of the steps in the Feature file is missing its implementation in the Step Definition file, a message is thrown. The @CucumberOptions has a dry run parameter that is used to configure the test parameters.

What are tags in Cucumber and why are they important?

When we only have one, two, or maybe five situations in a feature file, it appears to be simple. In reality, however, this does not occur. In a single feature file, we may have 10, 20, or even more scenarios for each feature under test. They could reflect various purposes (smoke test/regression test), perspectives (developer/QA/BA), and statuses (ready for execution/work in progress).
Tags in cucumber provide a way to run scenarios in a specific sequence from a runner file. Each situation can be labeled with a useful tag. Later, in the runner file, we may specify which tag (and hence which scenario(s)) Cucumber should run. “@” is the first character in a tag. Any relevant content after "@" can be used to define your tag.
Example - ‘@InitialTest’

What is the starting point of execution for feature files?

When integrated with Selenium, the starting point of execution must be from the TestRunner class.

What are hooks in Cucumber?

Hooks are code blocks that execute before or after each Cucumber scenario in the execution cycle. This enables us to better control the development workflow and decrease code redundancy. Setting up the web driver and terminating the web driver session resembles a test setup. When dealing with different scenarios, it's best to do the setup and clean up only once. Hooks are used to bringing optimization.

Certain preconditions, such as executing the program, creating a database connection, preparing the test data, and so on, may be required in some cases. There are also several postconditions to be fulfilled, such as ending the database connection, closing the browser, refreshing test data, and logging out of the program. Cucumber handles all of these situations with the use of hooks.

How do you comment the code in Cucumber? What is the importance of comments?

A comment is a chunk of code that is intended for documentation rather than execution. To make it more legible and clear, whether it's a step definition file or a feature file. As a result, it's critical to use/insert comments in the right places throughout the file. This is also beneficial for troubleshooting the code. Comments can be added to Cucumber feature files at any time. To add comments, simply begin the statement with the “#” sign.
Different programming languages have different standards for commenting. Let's see how Cucumber handles the situation:

* For Step Definition File, if you're using Java as a platform, start your comments with "/."
* In the case of a feature file, we only need to type # before starting our comment.

What is the name of the plugin that is used to integrate Eclipse with Cucumber?

Cucumber Natural Plugin is the plugin that is used to integrate Eclipse with Cucumber.

Explain the purpose of keywords that are used for writing a scenario in Cucumber.

* “Given” keyword is used to specify a precondition for the scenario.
* “When” keyword is used to specify an operation to be performed.
* “Then” keyword is used to specify the expected result of a performed action.
* “And” keyword is used to join one or more statements together into a single statement.

What is the use of Behavior Driven Development in Agile methodology?

The advantages of Behavior Driven Development are best realized when non-technical users such as Business Analysts use BDD to draft requirements and provide the same to the developers for implementation.

In Agile methodology, user stories can be written in the format of feature file and the same can be taken up for implementation by the developers.

When is Cucumber used in real-time?

Cucumber tool is generally used in real-time to write acceptance tests for an application. It is generally used by non-technical people such as Business Analysts, Functional Testers, etc.

What symbol is used for parameterization in Cucumber?

Pipe symbol (|) is used to specify one or more parameter values in a feature file.

What is the use of Background keyword in Cucumber?

Background keyword is used to group multiple given statements into a single group. This is generally used when the same set of given statements are repeated in each scenario of the feature file.

What is the limit for the maximum number of scenarios that can be included in the feature file?

A feature file can contain a maximum of 10 scenarios, but the number can vary from project to project and from one organization to another. But it is generally advisable to limit the number of scenarios included in the feature file.

What is the purpose of the Behaviour Driven Development (BDD) methodology in the real world?

BDD is a methodology to understand the functionality of an application in the simple plain text representation.

The main aim of the Behavior Driven Development framework is to make various project roles such as Business Analysts, Quality Assurance, Developers, Support Teams understand the application without diving deep into the technical aspects.

What is a Step Definition?

Step definition maps the Test Case Steps in the feature files to code. It executes the steps on Application Under Test and checks the outcomes against expected results. In order to execute step definition it must match the given component in a feature.

Why use Cucumber with Selenium?

Cucumber and Selenium are two popular technologies. Many organizations use Selenium for functional testing. These organizations which are using Selenium want to integrate Cucumber with Selenium as Cucumber helps you to read and to understand the application flow.

What does a cucumber features/ support file contain?

Features/ support file contains supporting ruby code. Files in support load before those in step_definitions, which can be useful for environment configuration.

What are regular expressions?

A regular expression is a pattern describing a certain amount of text. The most basic regular expression consists of a single literal character.

When to use Rspec and when to use Cucumber?

* Rspec is used for Unit Testing.

* Cucumber is used for Behavior-driven development. Cucumber can be used for System and Integration Tests.

What are the differences between Jbehave and Cucumber?

Although Cucumber and Jbehave are meant for the same purpose, acceptance tests are completely different frameworks

* Jbehave is, and Cucumber is Ruby-based
* Jbehave are based on stories while Cucumber is based on features

Give an example for step definition using “Given” function?

For example to make visitor visit the site “Yahoo” the command we use for given

Given (/^ I am on www.yahoo.com$/) do

Browser.goto “http://www.yahoo.com.”

end – This will visit www.yahoo.com

Explain the term step definition in Cucumber

A step definition is the actual code implementation of the feature mentioned in the feature file.

What programming language is used by Cucumber?

Cucumber tool provides support for multiple programming languages such as Java, .Net, Ruby etc. It can also be integrated with multiple tools such as Selenium, Capybara, etc.

What is Scenario Outline in feature file?

Scenario Outline is the same scenario can be executed for multiple sets of data using the scenario outline. The data is provided by a tabular structure separated by (I I).

Give an example of a behavior is driven test in plain text?

* Feature: Visit XYZ page in abc.com
* Scenario: Visit abc.com
* Given: I am on abc.com
* When: I click on XYZ page
* Then: I should see ABC page

explain the use of Background keyword in Cucumber?

Background keyword is used to group multiple given statements into a single group. The keyword mostly used when the same set of given statements are repeated in each scenario of the feature file.

What are the two files required to execute a Cucumber test scenario?

Two files required to execute a Cucumber test scenario are

* Features
* Step Definition

What are the basic requirements to run Cucumber Web test cases?

We need the following minimum requirements to successfully run a Cucumber Web test case:-

1. The compiler and the development kit for the programming language we will be using. Example: JDK and JRE for using Java as our programming language.
2. An IDE (Integrated Development Environment) wherein we can write our code. Example: Eclipse.
3. Build tools so as to do tasks such as compiling code, packaging code to a jar, creating source code. Example: Maven, Gradle.

What do you mean by feature in Cucumber?

A project's feature can be described as a stand-alone unit or functionality. A list of scenarios to test for a feature is frequently included with it. The Feature File is a file in which we store features, descriptions of features, and situations to be evaluated. For each feature under test, it is recommended that a separate feature file be created. The feature file must have the extension ".feature." You can make as many feature files as you want.
Here's an example:-

For an e-commerce website, we can have the following features:-

* User registers and signs up on the website.
* User tries to log in to their account using their credentials.
* Users add a product to their cart.
* User clicks on checkout now.
* User pays for their items.
* User logs out from the website.

All these are different features. The website will have many such features. All these features will have a separate Feature File.

What do you mean by Scenario Outline?

Consider the situation when we need to run a test scenario multiple times. Assume we need to ensure that the login feature is functional for all types of subscribers. This necessitates repeating the login functionality scenario. Copying and pasting the identical instructions to just re-run the code does not appear to be a good approach. Gherkin adds another framework, the scenario outline, to help with this. The scenario outline is similar to scenario, with the exception that several inputs are provided.
Example:-

Scenario Outline - Sign In Feature for a website.
Explanation: The website can have multiple users and so we need to consider all the users while implementing the sign-in functionality.

What do you mean by scenario in Cucumber Testing?

Scenario is a fundamental Gherkin structure. Every scenario begins with the keyword "Scenario:" (or a localized version of it) and ends with a scenario title. Every feature can have one or more scenarios, each of which has one or more steps.

As an example of a scenario, consider the following:

Scenario − Verify My Orders Functionality.
Explanation: When a user clicks on the My Orders option he/ she should be taken to the My Orders page.

Which language is used in Cucumber?

Cucumber understands Gherkin. It's a straightforward English representation of the app's functionality. It is used for defining test cases. It is intended to be non-technical and human-readable, and it describes use cases for a software system as a whole. It's a domain-specific (DSL), business-friendly language.

What are the primary keywords in Cucumber?

Following are the primary keywords in Cucumber:-

* Feature: The Feature keyword's aim is to collect relevant scenarios and provide a high-level description of a software feature.
* Rule: The Rule keyword is used to express a single business rule that should be followed. It adds to the information about a feature.
* Example: This is a practical illustration of a business rule. It comprises a series of steps.
* Given: The given steps are used to describe the system's initial context - the scenario's scene. It usually refers to an event that occurred in the past.
* When: When describing an occurrence or an action, When is employed. It could be a user interacting with the system or an event generated by another system.
* Then: Then steps are employed to indicate an anticipated outcome, or result.
* Background: A background helps you to give the situations that follow it some context. It can have one or more Given steps, which are executed prior to each scenario but after any Before hooks.

What is the principle of Behaviour Driven Development?

Behaviour Driven Development (BDD) is a synthesis and refinement of practices stemming from Test Driven Development (TDD) and Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATDD). BDD augments TDD and ATDD by
applying the “Five Why’s” principle to each proposed user story so that its purpose is clearly related to business outcomes. Five Why's is an iterative interrogative approach for uncovering the cause-and-effect links at the root of a problem. The main purpose of this technique is to uncover the core cause of a flaw or problem by asking "Why?" repeatedly. Each response serves as the foundation for the next question.

What is Gherkin Language?

Gherkin is a readable business language that allows you to define business activity without getting bogged down in implementation specifics. It's a domain-specific language for defining specs tests in Cucumber format. It describes use cases in plain English and helps users to remove logic elements from behaviour testing.

What is Cucumber? Explain the need of using Cucumber.

Cucumber is a behavior-driven development (BDD) testing tool. The BDD framework's major goal is to bring together a variety of project responsibilities, such as quality assurance, developers, and business analysts, to understand the application without diving too deeply into the technical components.
Testers use Cucumber to create test cases for evaluating program behaviour. It is an important tool to automate acceptance tests written in logical language that customers can understand. It's primarily used to develop acceptance tests for web apps based on their features' behaviour.

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