Gherkin Interview Questions for Experienced/Gherkin Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

What are annotation in cucumber?

Annotation in cucumber has a special function. It is a predefined text which has a special meaning in this software. It informs the compiler or interpreter to know what should be done at the time of execution.

For example: @RunWith(Cucumber.class)
@Cucumber.Options(format = {"pretty", "html:target/cucumber"})
public class runTest { }

What is dry-run in cucumber?

Dry-run is used to compile feature files and step definitions in cucumber. It is specially used in the stage when you will have to see if there are any compilation errors, to check that you can use dry-run. Dry-run options can either set as true or false. If it is set to true, it will mean that Cucumber checks every Step mentioned in the Feature File have corresponding code written in Step Definition file or not. So, if in any case any of the functions are missed in the Step Definition for any Step in Feature File, it will give us the message.

How to run cucumber tests in parallel?

Cucumber is software for Behaviour Driven Development (BDD) and when you start using it for your work, the number of automated tests can add up hence increasing your work by having to wait for it to run them all together. This is time-consuming and sometimes even takes a lot of time. To save time and increasing speed cucumber developed continuous integration (CI) which allows you to use CI parallelization. Jenkins allows you to configure pipeline stages to define tasks that will later be executed in parallel.

Enlist different types of hooks in cucumber?

There are two types of hooks in cucumber that we use;

Before hook and After hook. Before hook is used to execute well before any scenario and After hook as the name suggests is used to execute well after any scenario.

What are helper methods in cucumber?

By the helper method in cucumber, we can always remind us where we are in the midst of going through several transforms. It is not easy to keep in mind all the transforms so the helper method saves the hassle for a user to keep track of their work.

What is the language used for expressing scenario in feature file?

Gherkin language is used to express scenario in feature files and ruby files containing unobtrusive automation testing for the steps in scenarios.

What are the differences between Jbehave and Cucumber?

Although Cucumber and Jbehave are meant for the same purpose, acceptance tests are completely different frameworks

* Jbehave is, and Cucumber is Ruby-based
* Jbehave are based on stories while Cucumber is based on features

What are hooks in cucumber?

Hooks in cucumber has a special function of performing the task. It is an unseen step that allows us to perform our scenarios or tests. It is developed to reduce code redundancy and to give us a better workflow of codes. We can also use hooks after and before to be executed with a specific tag only.

For eg, @Before('@Web')

What language is used by cucumber?

Ruby programming language is used by cucumber.

What is use | symbol in cucumber?

The symbol | is used for parametrized in cucumber. This symbol is used to specify one or more parameter values in a feature file.

What is scenario outline in cucumber?

The scenario outline is used to replace variable/keywords with the value from the table. By using this software to write commands sometimes repetitive commands or scenarios with different permutations of inputs/outputs can be really time taking and frustrating as well. To solve this cucumber came with a solution to introduce the concept of a Scenario outline.

How you generate the report in cucumber?

Cucumber is a BDD framework and it doesn’t have a reporting mechanism. However, cucumber has provided a nice feature to generate reports. These reports are basic reports but by using the output of these reports you can build more detailed HTML reports.

These reports are pretty reports, Monochrome reporting, usage reports. Cucumber gives the capability to generate reports in the form of HTML, XML, JSON, and TXT.

What is the use of cucumber.yml file?

Cucumber.yml file allows you to store the command line options so as to save you from the tedious job of typing commands over and over again. The cucumber.yml file must be placed either in your project’s root directory or underneath a directory called config.

Enlist different types of hooks in cucumber?

There are two types of hooks in cucumber that we use;

Before hook and After hook. Before hook is used to execute well before any scenario and After hook as the name suggests is used to execute well after any scenario.

What is Arity mismatch in cucumber?

Arity mismatch in cucumber states that the steps don’t provide the right number of arguments which is needed for the step definition.

For example

consider this command: cucumber.runtime.cucumberexception:Arity mismatch.

What are helper methods in cucumber?

By the helper method in cucumber, we can always remind us where we are in the midst of going through several transforms. It is not easy to keep in mind all the transforms so the helper method saves the hassle for a user to keep track of their work.

What is use | symbol in cucumber?

The symbol | is used for parametrized in cucumber. This symbol is used to specify one or more parameter values in a feature file.

What is scenario outline in cucumber?

The scenario outline is used to replace variable/keywords with the value from the table. By using this software to write commands sometimes repetitive commands or scenarios with different permutations of inputs/outputs can be really time taking and frustrating as well. To solve this cucumber came with a solution to introduce the concept of a Scenario outline.

What is the name of the plugin that is used to integrate Eclipse with Cucumber?

Natural Plugin is the plugin that is used to integrate Eclipse with Cucumber.

What is the use of glue property under cucumber Options tag?

Glue property is used to let Cucumber framework identify the location of step definition files.

How can you generate cucumber execution reports?

We can use the following command to generate HTML reports.

-format HTML- out report.html- formal pretty.

What is the difference between Given, When, Then steps in feature file?

The example of a behavior-driven test in plain text is:

Feature: Visit the ABC page on xyz.com

* Given: I am on xyz.com

* Scenario: Visit xyz.com

* When: I click on ABC page

* Then: I should see the ABC page

What is the difference between cucumber, JBehave, and Specflow?

* Cucumber is a Ruby based framework.
* JBehave is a JAVA based framework.
* Specflow is a .NET based framework.

List down the mobile device which Selenium supports.

1. It supports Safari browser via a third-party driver. It is experimental and comes with limited functionality.

2. It provides an Android driver to run tests on its native mobile browser.

Give an example of a behavior-driven test in plain text?

The example of a behavior-driven test in plain text is:

* Feature: Visit the ABC page on xyz.com
* Given: I am on xyz.com

* Scenario: Visit xyz.com

* When: I click on ABC page

* Then: I should see the ABC page

What are the differences between Jbehave and Cucumber?

Although Cucumber and Jbehave are meant for the same purpose, acceptance tests are completely different frameworks

* Jbehave is pure Java-based and Cucumber is Ruby-based.
* Jbehave are based on stories while Cucumber is based on features.

What is the use of features property under the Cucumber Options tag?

Features property is used to let the Cucumber framework identify the location of the feature files.

Should any code be written within the TestRunner class?

No code should be written under the TestRunner class. It should include the tags @RunWith and @CucumberOptions.

What is the meaning of the TestRunner class in Cucumber?

TestRunner class is used to provide the link between the feature file and the step definition file. The next question provides a sample representation of how the TestRunner class will look like. A TestRunner class is generally an empty class with no class definition.

How can Cucumber be integrated with Selenium WebDriver?

Cucumber can be integrated with the Selenium Webdriver by downloading the necessary JAR files.

Given below are the list of JAR files that are to be downloaded for using Cucumber with Selenium web driver:

* cucumber-core-1.2.2.jar
* cucumber-java-1.2.2.jar
* cucumber-junit-1.2.2.jar
* cucumber-jvm-deps-1.0.3.jar
* cucumber-reporting-0.1.0.jar
* gherkin-2.12.2.jar

How can you use the Options tag in the Cucumber framework?

In the Cucumber framework, the Options tag is a part of the TestRunner file and comes in the form of an annotation called @CucumberOptions. It contains two parameters feature and glue.

* Feature parameter: The feature parameter is used to specify the path of the feature file.
* Glue parameter: The glue parameter is used to specify the path of the step definition file.
See the code implementation of TestRunner file with Option tag:

import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import cucumber.api.CucumberOptions;
import cucumber.api.junit.Cucumber;
@RunWith (Cucumber.class)
@CucumberOptions (
features = "src/test/java/features ",
glue = {"stepDefinitions"}
)
public class TestRunner {
}
We have to import org.junit.runner.RunWith for the @RunWith annotation and cucumber.api.CucumberOptions for the @CucumberOptions annotation.

Should we write code within the TestRunner class?

It is advised not to write code under the TestRunner class. It should include the tags @RunWith and @CucumberOptions.

What do you understand by the TestRunner class in the Cucumber testing approach? Explain with example.

In the Cucumber testing approach, the TestRunner class provides the link between the feature file and the step definition file. The TestRunner class is generally an empty class with no class definition.

Example of a TestRunner class in Cucumber:

Package com.sample.TestRunner
importorg.junit.runner.RunWith;
importcucumber.api.CucumberOptions;
importcucumber.api.junit.Cucumber;
@RunWith(Cucumber.class)
@CucumberOptions(features="Features",glue={"StepDefinition"})
public class Runner
{
}

What do you understand by TDD, and what are the different processes used in TDD?

TDD is an acronym that stands for Test-Driven Development. This is a software development technique used to create the test cases first and then write the code underlying those test cases. Although TDD is a development technique, it can also be used for automation testing development. TDD takes more time for development because it tends to find very few defects. The result provided by the TDD development technique has improved the quality of code, and that can be more reusable and flexible. TDD also helps developers to achieve high test coverage of about 90-100%. The only disadvantage for developers following TDD is to write their test cases before writing the code.

Following is the list of simple 6 step process used by TDD methodology:

1. First, write the test case: You have to write an automated test case according to your requirements.
2. Run all the test cases: Now, run these automated test cases on the currently developed code.
3. Develop the code for that test case: In this process, you must write the code to make that test case work as expected if the test case fails.
4. Run test cases again: Now, you have to rerun the test cases and check if all the test cases developed so far are implemented.
5. Refactor your code: This is an optional step. But, it is advised to refactor your code to make it more readable and reusable. That's why it is essential.
6. Repeat steps 1- 5 for new test cases: This is the last step. Here, you have to repeat the cycle for the other test cases until all the test cases are implemented.

Cucumber execution starts from where?

Cucumber completing will start from support. In support primary it will load the env.rb file then it will load hooks.rb and then it will start to implement feature file scenario steps.

What is the purpose of the behavior-driven development (BDD) methodology in the real world?

Behavior Driven Development or BDD is a methodology used to understand the functionality of an application in the simple plain text representation. The primary purpose of the Behavior Driven Development framework is to make various project roles such as Business Analysts, Quality Assurance, Developers, Support Teams understand the application without diving deep into the technical aspects.

What are the maximum numbers of scenarios that we can includ in the feature file?

In Cucumber, a feature file can contain a maximum of 10 scenarios. This number can vary from project to project and from one organization to another organization. It is the best practice to limit the number of scenarios included in the feature file.

Name the language used for expressing scenario in feature file?

Gherkin language is used to communicate scenario in feature files and ruby files containing unobtrusive automation testing for the steps in scenarios.

What is the difference between Selenium and Cucumber?

Selenium and Cucumber are both open-source testing tools, and both are used for functional testing. But there are some differences between them.

Following are some critical differences between Selenium and Cucumber:

* Selenium is a web browser automation tool for web apps, while Cucumber is an automation tool for behavior-driven development that can be used with Selenium (or Appium).
* Selenium is used for automated UI testing, while Cucumber is used for acceptance testing.
* Selenium is preferred by technical teams (SDETs/programmers), while Cucumber is typically preferred by non-technical teams (business stakeholders and testers).
* Selenium can work independently of Cucumber. Cucumber depends on Selenium or Appium for step-definition implementation.
In Selenium, the script creation is complex, while Cucumber is simpler than Selenium.

What is the Scenario Outline in Cucumber?

This is the most asked cucumber interview question. A scenario outline replaces an identifier with the actual value from the table. Each row can be considered as a scenario. A feature file is more time taking a task and is more error-prone in testing. The same feature file can be reduced to a fewer number of lines for execution in the scenario outline feature to increase the efficiency and decreases the runtime.

What is the step definition in Cucumber?

A step definition is the definite code completion of the trait mentioned in the feature file.

Name the two files required to execute a cucumber test scenario?

Two files required to complete a cucumber test scenario are:

* Step- Definition
* Features

Tell me the starting point of execution for feature files?

When incorporated with selenium, the initial point of implementation must be from the Test runner class.

Tell me the name of the plugin that is used to integrate eclipse with cucumber?

Cucumber normal plugin is the plugin that is used to put together eclipse with cucumber.

What are the steps to generate a report in Cucumber?

We run the following command to produce HTML reports.
cucumber <featurename>.feature --format html --out report.html --format pretty

What are cucumber tags? And why do we use them?

Cucumber tags help in filtering the scenarios. We can tag the scenarios and then run them based on tags.
1- We can add tags to scenarios with the <@> symbol.
2- We can use the following command to run a cucumber tagged scenario.

cucumber features -t @<tag_name>

#Example: cucumber features -t @test

What Are Before, After, Beforestep And Afterstep Hooks?

Before: execute before the feature file execution

After: executes after the feature file execution

BeforeStep: executes before the each step execution

AfterStep: executes after the each step execution

Explain the purpose of keywords that are used for writing a scenario in Cucumber.

“Given” keyword is used to specify a precondition for the scenario. When a keyword is used to specify an operation to be performed. The keyword is used to specify the expected result of a performed action. “And” keyword is used to join one or more statements together into a single statement.

What are the various keywords that are used in Cucumber for writing a scenario?

Mentioned below are the keywords that are used for writing a scenario:
* Given
* When
* Then
* And

What is the difference between RSpec and Cucumber? When should we use RSpec and when to use Cucumber?

RSpec and Cucumber both are the example of testing frameworks. RSpec uses traditional Unit Testing. It means it uses testing a class or part of the application in isolation from the rest of the application. So your model does what your model is supposed to do, the controller does what it is supposed to do, etc. RSpec and Cucumber both are used for Acceptance Testing, also called ATDD, BDD, etc.

Difference between RSpec and Cucumber

* The main difference between RSpec and Cucumber is the business readability factor.
* RSpec is mainly used for Unit Testing. On the other hand, Cucumber is mainly used for Behavior-driven development. We can also use it for System and Integration Testing.
* In Cucumber, the specifications or features are separate from the test code, so the product owners can provide or review the specification without going through the code. These are the .feature files that you make in Cucumber.
* RSpec also has a similar mechanism, but instead of describing a step with a Describe or Context, it uses the business specification to execute that statement. This approach is a little easier for developers to work with but a bit harder for non-technical guys.

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