Computer Hardware and Networking interview question set 1/Computer Hardware and Networking Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

What is the purpose of cables being shielded and having twisted pairs?

The primary purpose of this is to prevent crosstalk. Crosstalk’s are electromagnetic interferences or noise that can affect data being transmitted across cables.

What Is Sap?

Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of network protocol stack.

What Is Frame Relay, In Which Layer It Comes?

Frame relay is a packet switching technology. It will operate in the data link layer.

What Is Netbios And Netbeui?


NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a remote computer and it hides the networking hardware from applications.
NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol designed by Microsoft and IBM for the use on small subnets.

What is the importance of implementing a Fault Tolerance System?

A fault tolerance system ensures continuous data availability. This is done by eliminating a single point of failure.

What are the different ways of securing a computer network?

There are several ways to do this. Install a reliable and updated anti-virus program on all computers. Make sure firewalls are setup and configured correctly. User authentication will also help a lot. All these combined would make a highly secured network.

How does a network topology affect your decision to set a network?

Network topology dictates what media you must use to interconnect devices. It also serves as a basis on what materials, connectors, and terminations that is applicable for the setup.

In Which Partition Linux Is Installed?

Linux doesn’t support windows file system that contain partition scheme. It (Linux) has its own file system known as ext2, and ext3. it will install only on it.In linux file system it will install on / (root) partition.

What Is Proxy Server?

Most large businesses, organizations, and universities these days use a proxy server. This is a server that all computers on the local network have to go through before accessing information on the Internet. By using a proxy server, an organization can improve the network performance and filter what users connected to the network can access.

What Are The Perquisites To Configure Server?

•LAN card should be connected:
•Root (partition on which window is installed) should in NTFS
•Server should be configured with a static IP address

What Is The Difference Between Arp And Rarp?

The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical address, used by a host or a router to find the physical address of another host on its network by sending a ARP uery packet that includes the IP address of the receiver. The reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows only its physical address.

Explain Hidden Shares. How Do They Work?

Hidden or administrative shares are share names with a dollar sign ($) appended to their names. Administrative shares are usually created automatically for the root of each drive letter. They do not display in the network browse list.

What Is Tcp/ip?


It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because its most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), were the first networking protocols defined in this standard.

What Is A Layer?

Layer is a completely logical partition of PDU (protocol data unit) process. That define how the information travels from one computer to another over the network.

What Are The Difference Between Hub And Switch?

Hub is a layer 1 device. It will out the signal from all of its port except the one from where It’s insert. It is unable to detect the collision. It works on single collision and a single broadcast domain. Switch is layer 2 device. It maintains a CAM table that store the MAC address of devices attached to its port. CAM table is used to make the forwarding decision. It works on per port collision and single broadcast domain.

What are the different ways to exchange data?

Following are the different ways to exchange data:

<> Simplex
<> Half-duplex
<> Full-duplex

Differentiate between static IP addressing and dynamic IP addressing.

In a static IP address, a computer (or another device) is always configured to use the same IP address, whereas, in a dynamic IP address, the IP address can change periodically and is managed by a centralized network service.

What Is Ip?

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

What are the important topologies for networks?

There are three essential topologies – Star, Bus, and Ring.

What is an IP address?

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical unique address of a device in a network. IP is a datagram-oriented connectionless protocol, therefore each packet must contain a header with the source IP address, the destination IP address, and other data in order to be delivered successfully.

There are two types of IPs –

Private IP Address – A private IP address is a set of numbers that are assigned to each computer or system, connected to a private network. An example of a private IP address is your mobile phone or your home router which have a default local address.

Public IP Address – Public IP addresses are global addresses, visible to anyone browsing the Internet. A user just needs an internet connection to connect to such devices.

Differentiate between ‘attenuation’, ‘distortion’, and ‘noise’.

When a signal travels through a medium, it loses some of its energy due to the resistance of the medium. This loss of energy is called attenuation.

When a signal travels through a medium from one point to another, it may change the form or shape of the signal. This is known as distortion.

Noise is unwanted electrical or electromagnetic energy that degrades the quality of signals and data.

What is ‘beaconing’?

Beaconing is the process that allows a network to self-repair network problems. This is among the important networking interview questions and you must prepare for the related terminologies as well.

What is a MAC address?

A MAC (Media Access Control) address is the unique 48-bit hardware address of a LAN card, usually stored in the ROM of the network adapter card.

The MAC address is a unique identifier that manufacturers assign to a network card or device. It is also known as a physical address represented by hexadecimal digits. Each MAC address is unique worldwide and, in theory, they are fixed for each device.

Each MAC address includes six pairs of numbers. The first three pairs help to identify the manufacturer and the next three to the specific model. It is important to bear in mind that a computer may have a variety of hardware to connect to networks; thus, it is common to have a MAC address for Ethernet, one for Wi-Fi, and another for Bluetooth.

Define Fully Qualified Domain Name And Partially Qualified Domain Name

In hierarchical namespace, names are defined in an inverted­tree structure with the root at the top. The tree can have only 128 levels: level 0 (root) to level 127. Each node in the tree has a label, which is a string with a maximum of 63 characters. The root label is a null string (empty string). In this tree, all the labels have a different name, which guarantee the uniqueness of the domain names. A full domain name is a sequence of labels separated by dots (.). The domain names are always read from the node up to the root.
● Fully Qualified Domain Name
If a label is terminated by a null string or empty string, it is called a fully qualified domain name (FQDN).
● Partially Qualified Domain Name
If a label is not terminated by a null string, it is called a partially qualified domain name (PQDN). A PQDN starts from a node, but it does not end with the root.

Define Fully Qualified Domain Name And Partially Qualified Domain Name

In hierarchical namespace, names are defined in an inverted­tree structure with the root at the top. The tree can have only 128 levels: level 0 (root) to level 127. Each node in the tree has a label, which is a string with a maximum of 63 characters. The root label is a null string (empty string). In this tree, all the labels have a different name, which guarantee the uniqueness of the domain names. A full domain name is a sequence of labels separated by dots (.). The domain names are always read from the node up to the root.
● Fully Qualified Domain Name
If a label is terminated by a null string or empty string, it is called a fully qualified domain name (FQDN).
● Partially Qualified Domain Name
If a label is not terminated by a null string, it is called a partially qualified domain name (PQDN). A PQDN starts from a node, but it does not end with the root.

Describe Domain Name System

There are two types of client/server programs:
● First is used directly by the user, such as e­mail
● Second supports other application programs
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a supporting program that is used by other programs such as to find the IP address of an e­mail recipient.

How does a Frame Relay Work?

Frame Relay supports the multiplexing of traffic from multiple connections over a shared physical link. It uses hardware components that include router frames, bridges, and switches to pack data into individual frame relay messages. Each connection uses a 10-bit Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) for unique channel addressing. There are two types of connections:

<> Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) for persistent connections are intended to be maintained for long periods even if data is not actively transferred.

<> Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) for temporary connections that last only one session.
Frame Relay then places the data in a variable-size unit called a frame and leaves any necessary error correction (data retransmission) until the endpoints, speeding up the overall transmission of data.

What is a ‘frame relay’ and in which layer does it operate?

Frame Relay is a data link layer digital packet-switched network protocol technology designed to connect local area networks (LANs) and transfer data over wide area networks (WANs). Frame Relay shares some of the same underlying technology as X.25.

It is based on the older X.25 packet-switching technology that was designed to transmit analog data as voice conversations. Unlike X.25, which was designed for analog signals, Frame Relay is a fast packet technology, which means that the protocol does not attempt to correct errors. It is often used to connect LANs with main backbones, as well as in public wide area networks and in private network environments with leased T-1 lines. It requires a dedicated connection during the transmission period and is not ideal for voice or video, which require a constant stream of transmissions.

What are ‘client’ and ‘server’ in a network?

Clients and servers are separate logical entities that work together over a network to accomplish a task.

A client application is the element of communication that requests or requests a network service, for example, accessing a web page, or downloading a file, or sending an email.

A server application is the element of communication that responds to customer requests, providing the required service, that is, sending the web page or the requested file or email.

The client-server model is used by computer applications such as email, the worldwide web, and network printing.

What is Network Topology?

This is among the important networking interview questions. Network topology is the physical or logical arrangement in which the devices or nodes of a network (e.g. computers, printers, servers, hubs, switches, routers, etc.) are interconnected with each other over a communication medium. It consists of two parts – the physical topology, which is the actual arrangement of the cables (the media), and the logical topology, which defines how the hosts access the media.

What is DNS?

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a central part of the internet, providing a way to match names (a website you’re seeking) to numbers (the address for the website). Anything connected to the internet – laptops, tablets, mobile phones, and websites – has an Internet Protocol (IP) address made up of numbers.

What is a ‘subnet’?

A ‘subnet’ is a generic term for a section of an extensive network, usually separated by a bridge or a router. It also works for the network’s broadcast domains, manages traffic flow, and helps increasing network performance.

Uses of the subnet in networking:

<> Relieving network congestion
<> Reallocating IP addresses
<> Improving network security

What is anonymous FTP?

Anonymous FTP is a way of granting user access to files in public servers. Users that are allowed access to data in these servers do not need to identify themselves, but instead, log in as an anonymous guest.

What is a point to point link?

It refers to a direct connection between two computers on a network. A point to point connection does not need any other network devices other than connecting a cable to the NIC cards of both computers.

What are the layers of the OSI reference model?

There are 7 OSI layers: 1) Physical Layer, 2) Data Link Layer, 3) Network Layer, 4) Transport Layer, 5) Session Layer, 6) Presentation Layer, and 7) Application Layer.

What are the different types of network cables used in networking?

The different types of cables used in networks are –

<> Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable
<> Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable
<> Coaxial Cable
<> Fiber Optic Cable
<> Cable Installation Guides
<> Wireless LANs
<> Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable

What’s the difference between a firewall and an antivirus?

A firewall works by protecting your network from potentially dangerous data packets. It is available both as a software and as hardware already built into most modern routers. An antivirus, instead, detects malware that is already in your system and limits the damage to your computer by deleting or isolating the infected files. To put it briefly, a firewall protects your system from malware infections, while an antivirus removes the malicious software.

What is ASCII?

ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It’s a widely used format for text files in computers. The basic ASCII table includes 128 characters, but extended ASCII adds 128 characters, so the total is 256. Its purpose is to ensure that different devices can communicate with each other. Also, it translates the binary language of a computer into human language, so you can read it on the screen.

What is an IP address?

An IP address is a unique number that identifies a device connected to the network. Exactly like your home address, it provides information about a specific physical location. There are two versions of the IP protocol: IPv4 and IPv6. IPv6 is replacing IPv4 because it allows trillions of devices to connect to the network, and it has built-in security features. There are private and public IP addresses. The former connect devices in a private home or company network, while the latter allows the devices to connect with other computers and servers all over the world.

What is ARP in Networking?

The acronym ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) which is a communication protocol used to find the MAC (Media Access Control) address of a host from its IP address. It is an important protocol in networking used to convert a 32-bit Internet Protocol (IP) address, typically for IPv4, to a 48-bit MAC address in a LAN.

There are four types of ARP –

1. Proxy ARP
2. Gratuitous ARP
3. Reverse ARP
4. Inverse ARP

What is Bridge in Networking?

A Bridge is a networking device that connects multiple LANs to create a single, aggregated network segment. This process of aggregating networks to form a larger LAN is known as Network Bridging. Bridges work as the layer 2 network or data link layer of the OSI model and transmit data as data frames. A wireless bridge connects networks having wireless segments. Bridges help improve network performance by separating a network into different sections or segments with different bandwidth. It can block or forward the incoming data frame after inspecting it for the destination MAC address. Switches are preferred over bridges in modern LANs as bridges generally connect fewer networks.

What is Gateway in Networking?

A Gateway is a networking hardware device that acts as a ‘gate’ to form a passage between two network devices with two high-level protocols. A gateway is a layer three network system or device used for both LAN and WAN interconnects to serve as a transitional task. In other words, it acts as a translator between two systems that use different languages, data formats, architectures, or communication protocols. The gateway acts as the entry and exit point for a network to manage the data inflows and outflows. It stores information about the routing paths of networks in communication and transmits data across them using the packet switching technique.

What is a Firewall in Networking?

A Firewall is a network security device that monitors all incoming and outgoing traffic and permits, blocks, or drops data packets based on a defined set of security rules. In other words, a firewall establishes a barrier between your internal network and the incoming traffic from untrusted external sources such as the internet to block malicious traffics such as viruses and hacking.

What is Protocol in Networking?

A Protocol is an established set of rules that govern how devices exchange information within a network quickly and reliably. In other words, network protocols can be equated to a common language for two devices that enable them to have seamless communication, similar to how two people from different regions of the world may not understand each other’s native language but can still communicate using a ‘shared’ third language.

What is Router in Networking?

A Router is a networking device that sends, receives, and analyses data packets within the connected computer networks. A router is a layer three network device used in LAN (Local Area Network) and WAN (Wide Area Network) environments. When the data packet arrives, it inspects the destination IP address, consults its routing tables, calculates the best way to forward it and transfers it along the chosen route. Routers work on the routing protocol to prioritise the data to be transferred for each transmission. These are an essential part of modern computer networking, not just for establishing internet connections or data transmissions but also to provide additional security. By embedding firewalls and content filtering software, routers help businesses from malicious online websites and unwanted content. There are various routers available in the market depending upon their usages, such as wireless routers, edge routers, broadband routers, core routers and brouters.

What is Switch in Networking?

A Switch in Networking is a small hardware device that connects multiple devices such as computers, printers, wireless access points, etc., within one local area network (LAN). It is the key building block of any network and enables the connected devices to send, receive or forward information with each other. A switch operates in layer 2, also known a the OSI model’s Data Link layer. Switches are the most commonly used component of networks based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Ethernet, InfiniBand, and more. These work by reducing the workload on the individual PCs and thereby increasing the overall bandwidth of the network. Switches use MAC addresses to support unicast, multicast, and broadcast communications to selected destination ports. These are broadly categorised into four types – Unmanaged switch, Managed switch, LAN switch, and PoE switch.

What is bandwidth?

Bandwidth refers to the maximum transfer rate of data from a network device. It indicates how fast data can be sent over an internet connection, and it’s usually measured in bits per second. The more bandwidth a device has, the faster it will send and receive information. Bandwidth is a key factor in determining the speed of your internet connection, together with latency.

What does HTTP mean?

HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol. It’s a network protocol used by the internet to fetch and display the web page you’re looking for or to let you skip from one page to the other. However, HTTP protocol is designed in plain text, so any other person in the network could potentially see the data that your browser communicates to the server and vice versa. HTTPS, instead, uses the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which encrypts your data to keep it secure.

How do you secure a computer network?

There are many simple ways to ensure that a computer network is safe at all times. The first step is installing a firewall, a software that blocks unauthorized access to your network. Also, it’s vital to regularly update your antivirus software, since hackers are developing new malware all the time. Another useful tool is a Virtual Private Network (VPN) that enhances internet security by making your network available only to devices in your system.

What does network mean?

A network consists of multiple computers, tablets or smartphones that communicate with each other. A device is said to be networked with another when it’s able to communicate data to the other device. Two devices can be networked with each other over cable media or wireless media, such as Wi-Fi. Today, there are different kinds of networks, but they fall under two major categories: LAN and WAN. LAN networks are limited to a restricted area, while WAN ones can connect computers in multiple locations.

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