Computer Hardware and Networking interview question set 2/Computer Hardware and Networking Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

Name the types of WAN services obtained by Cisco routers.

WAN services obtained by Cisco routers are switched services where protocols are used to connect end to end devices and Interface front end.

Mention the use of DDR on Cisco routers.

DDR stands for dial-on-demand routing used to generate and close a circuit-switched session. It provides on-demand routing to the low volume and periodic traffic.

What are the benefits of the Hamming code?

Here, are important benefits of Hamming code

<> The Hamming code method is effective on networks where the data streams are given for the single-bit errors.
<> Hamming code not only provides the detection of a bit error but also helps you to indent bit containing error so that it can be corrected.
<> The ease of use of hamming codes makes it suitable for use in computer memory and single-error correction.

What is the 5-4-3 rule? In which architecture it is used?

In the 5-4-3 rule, there is a maximum of five segments in a network that are connected with four repeaters. It is used in 10Base2 and 10Base5 Ethernet architectures. In this rule, only three segments can be populated with nodes.

How many network segments can be populated in 10Base2?

10Base2 networks allow a maximum of five segments with only three of those segments populated. Each of the three populated segments can have a maximum of 30 nodes attached.

Mention the types of wires used for data transmission in UTP cable.

There are four types of wires used for data transmission in UTP cable, which is wire 1, 2, 3, and 6. Where wires 1 and 2 are used to transmit the data while wires 3 and 6 are used to receive the data.

What are the functions of a Network Layer?

The Network Layer or OSI Layer 3 provides services for exchanging individual sections of data over the network between identified end devices. To perform this end-to-end transport Layer 3 uses four basic processes:

1. Addressing
2. Encapsulation
3. Routing
4. Decapsulation

What is Process Sigma?

Process Sigma measures the frequency of a task that is performed without any error. It is expressed as a number of standard deviations on a normal distribution.

What is a VPN (Virtual Private Network)? What are the advantages of using a VPN Connection?

A VPN or Virtual Private Network is an encrypted connection (secure tunnel) built on the internet from a device to a network. It helps in the creation of a protected network between different networks using the internet (public network), ensuring that sensitive data is safely transmitted. This makes it difficult for third parties to gain unauthorized access, track your activities online, or steal data. By using the VPN, a client can connect to the organization’s network remotely.

Some of the advantages of using VPN Connection are:

1. Remote Access
2. Protected File Sharing
3. Anonymity
4. Enhanced Security
5. Improved Performance
6. Anonymity
7. Network Scalability
8. Prevents Data Throttling

Is there a difference between a gateway and a router?

A gateway sends the data between two dissimilar networks, while a router sends the data between two similar networks.

What is NVT (Network Virtual Terminal)?

NVT is a set of pre-defined rules to very simple virtual terminal interaction. This terminal helps you to start a Telnet session.

What is the maximum segment length of a 100Base-FX network?

The maximum length for a network segment using 100Base-FX is 412 meters.

What is the RSA algorithm?

RSA is short for the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm. It is the most commonly used public-key encryption algorithm in use today.

What is the role of the IEEE in computer networking?

IEEE, or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, is an organization composed of engineers that issues and manages standards for electrical and electronic devices. This includes networking devices, network interfaces, cablings, and connectors.

How can you fix signal attenuation problems?

A common way of dealing with such a problem is to use repeaters and hubs because it will help regenerate the signal and therefore prevent signal loss. Checking if cables are properly terminated is also a must.

Explain the importance of authentication.

Authentication is the process of verifying a user’s credentials before he can log into the network. It is normally performed using a username and password. This provides a secure means of limiting access from unwanted intruders on the network.

What do you understand by DHCP?

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol or DHCP is a network management protocol. DHCP automatically assigns IP addresses to the devices on the network and is used on the UDP/IP networks. In turn, it reduces the need for a network admin to assign IP addresses manually; this further reduces errors.

Explain piggybacking.

In two-way communication, the receiver sends an acknowledgment to the sender on receiving the data packets. Suppose the receiver does not send the acknowledgment immediately and waits till the network layer passes in the following data packet. In that case, an acknowledgment is attached to the outgoing data frame. This process is known as piggybacking.

Tell us about the advantages of a Modem.

Some advantages of modem are:

1. Its speed depends on the cost

2. It is more helpful in connecting LAN with the Internet

3. It is the most widely used data communication roadway.

Where is the best place to install an Anti-virus program?

An anti-virus program must be installed on all servers and workstations to ensure protection. That’s because individual users can access any workstation and introduce a computer virus. You can plug in their removable hard drives or flash drives.

What Is Multicast Routing?

Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing.

What Is Region?

When hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we call regions, with each router knowing all the details about how to route packets to destinations within its own region, but knowing nothing about the internal structure of other regions.

What Is The Difference Between Interior And Exterior Neighbour Gateways?


Interior gateways connect LANs of one organization, whereas exterior gateways connect the organization to the outside world.

What Protocol Is Used By Dns Name Servers?


DNS uses UDP for communication between servers. It is a better choice than TCP because of the improved speed a connectionless protocol offers. Of course, transmission reliability suffers with UDP.

How will you recover data from a Virus-infected system?

We will install an OS and updated antivirus in a system that is free of any viruses, and then connect the hard drive of the infected system as a secondary drive. The hard drive will then be scanned and cleaned. Data can now be copied into the system.

How would you differentiate between Firewall and Antivirus?

Both are security applications used in networking.

A firewall prevents unauthorized access in private networks as intranets. However, it does not protect against viruses, spyware, or adware.

An antivirus is software that protects a computer from any malicious software, virus, spyware, or adware.

You may consider such networking interview questions to be basic, but such questions are the favorite of interviewers as interviewees often leave behind such networking interview questions while preparing.

What is Ethernet in Networking?

Ethernet is a computer network technology used to connect multiple computers or devices over a wired connection and create a local area network (LAN). It provides a simple interface by connecting devices together with a cable to share information. Ethernet works on layer 1 (physical) and layer 2 (data link layer) of an OSI model and can connect up to 1024 personal computers. An Ethernet network may use various topologies such as a star, bus, ring, etc. Wired Ethernet networks are connected via fibre optic cables, while the wireless Ethernet network uses wireless NICs. Ethernet network is very reliable, and data is transmitted as well as received at very high speed. To ensure the security of the data, Ethernet makes use of firewalls.

What is a Hybrid Network?

A hybrid network is a network setup that makes use of both client-server and peer-to-peer architecture.

What is ATM in Networking?

ATM stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode and is a switching technique used by telecommunication networks to encode data into small fixed-size packets called cells. These cells are ideal for time-division multiplexing (TDM) and transmit them over a physical medium.

Each ATM cell is 53 bytes long with a 5-byte header and a 48-byte payload. Since all the data is encoded into identical cells, the transmission is simple and uniform. This reduces packet overload and ensures that mixed traffic is handled efficiently. ATM is the core protocol used for Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and other high-speed networks. ATM networks can easy to work with and are scalable both in size and speed.

What is VLSM in Networking?

VLSM stands for Variable Length Subnet Masking. It is a subnet design strategy that allows subnet masks to have variable sizes within the same network. In other words, it involves a process of subnetting a subnet. VLSM enables network engineers to divide an IP address into different sized subnets and allocate it according to the network needs. This means that more than one mask is used for different subnets of a single class A, B, or C networks, thereby increasing the usability of subnets. The network administrator must use the relevant supporting routing protocol to use VLSM such as Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS), Routing Information Protocol v2 (RIPv2), Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).

What is Host in Networking?

A host refers to a computer device (or server) that is linked with other devices connected within a network. The network hosts are assigned at least one network address configured manually by an administrator or automatically assigned by means of DHCP.

What is RIP?

It is the abbreviation for Routing Information Protocol. It is a simple protocol that exchanges information between the routers.

What is TELNET?

TELNET is a client-service protocol on the internet or local area network, allowing a user to log on to a remote device and have access to it. Technically, it is a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility, which uses a virtual terminal connection.

Bootp Helps A Disk Less Workstation Boot. How Does It Get A Message To The Network Looking For Its Ip Address And The Location Of Its Operating System Boot Files?


BOOTP sends a UDP message with a subnet work broadcast address and waits for a reply from a server that gives it the IP address. The same message might contain the name of the machine that has the boot files on it. If the boot image location is not specified, the workstation sends another UDP message to query the server.

What Is Packet Filter?


Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality allows every incoming or outgoing packet to be inspected. Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded normally. Those that fail the test are dropped.

What is the main disadvantage of a peer to peer network?

Accessing the resources that are shared by one of the workstations on the network takes a performance hit.

Mention the uses of the Hamming code?

Following are some of the common applications of using Hemming code:

1. Modems
2. Satellites
3. PlasmaCAM
4. Shielding wire
5. Embedded Processor
6. Computer Memory
7. Open connectors

Can you tell us about the use of Pseudo TTY?

It is a false terminal allowing external machines to log in or to connect through Telnet. No connection can take place without it.

How does dynamic host configuration protocol help in network administration?

The network administrator applies the dynamic host configuration protocol to create a pool of IP addresses instead of visiting each client computer to configure a static IP address. This pool is known as the scope that can be assigned to clients dynamically.

What is SLIP?

SLIP, or Serial Line Interface Protocol, is an old protocol developed during the early UNIX days. This is one of the protocols that are used for remote access.

What is meant by clustering support?

Clustering support is the ability of a network operating system in a fault-tolerant group to connect multiple servers. The primary purpose of clustering is that if one server fails, the processing can continue with the next server in the cluster.

What are gateways?

Gateways provide connectivity between two or more network segments. It is usually a computer that runs the gateway software and provides translation services. This translation is key in allowing different systems to communicate on the network.

What is the main purpose of OSPF?

OSPF, or Open Shortest Path First, is a link-state routing protocol that uses routing tables to determine the best possible path for data exchange.

How can you identify the IP class of a given IP address?

By looking at the first octet of any given IP address, you can identify whether it’s Class A, B, or C. If the first octet begins with a 0 bit, that address is Class A. If it begins with bits 10 then that address is a Class B address. If it begins with 110, then it’s a Class C network.

What is Ping in Networking?

A Ping is a software utility used to verify the reachability of a specific IP address on a network. It was first developed by Michael Muss in 1983 to quickly test various points of the network and get a response. It works by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo requests to the host of a destination computer and then waiting for an echo reply. The ping is initiated several times to get responses echoed back to the source provides important information such as –

<> consistency in the network connection
<> bytes sent and received
<> approximate duration of the round-trip time
<> packets sent, received, or lost

What are the perquisites to configure a server?

Perquisites to configure a server are:

<> LAN card should be connected
<> Root (partition on which window is installed) should be in NTFS format.
<> A server should be configured with a static IP address.

What Are The Three Type Of Routing Tables And What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of These?

The three types of routing tables are fixed, dynamic, and fixed central.

<> A fixed table must be manually modified every time there is a change.
<> A dynamic table changes its information based on network traffic, reducing the amount of manual maintenance.
<> A fixed central table lets a manager modify only one table, which is then read by other devices. The fixed central table reduces the need to update each machine's table, as with the fixed table. Usually a dynamic table causes the fewest problems for a network administrator, although the table's contents can change without the administrator being aware of the change.

What is the equivalent layer or layers of the TCP/IP Application layer in terms of the OSI reference model?

The TCP/IP Application layer has three counterparts on the OSI model: 1) Session Layer, 2) Presentation Layer, and 3) Application Layer.

What is RAS?

RAS (Remote Access Services) refers to any combination of hardware and software to enable remote access to tools or information that typically reside on a network of IT devices.

What is the difference between ‘standard’ and ‘extended’ ACL

Standard ACLs are source-based, whereas extended ACLs are source- and destination-based.

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