IAC tools Interview Questions for Freshers/IAC tools Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

What is Resilience Testing?

Resilience Testing is a software process that tests the application for its behavior under uncontrolled and chaotic scenarios. It also ensures that the data and functionality are not lost after encountering a failure.

What is CBD in DevOps?

CBD stands for Component-Based Development. It is a unique way for approaching product development. Here, developers keep looking for existing well-defined, tested, and verified components of code and relieve the developer of developing from scratch.

What are the benefits of Automation Testing?

The major benefits of automation testing are listed below:

* Supports wider test coverage of application features
* Ensures consistency
* Allows parallel execution
* Improves efficiency
* Reusable test scripts
* Saves money and time
* Reliable results

What do you mean by Automation Testing?

Automation Testing or Test Automation is a software testing technique. It is used to automate the testing tasks and repetitive tasks that are difficult to perform manually. It involves the use of separate testing tools which lets you create test scripts to test and compare the actual and expected outcomes.

What is Continuous Testing? Explain its benefits.

Continuous Testing is defined as a process of executing automated tests as part of the software delivery lifecycle to obtain feedback on business risks associated with the software release. The objective of continuous testing is to test early and test often to prevent the problems from progressing to the next stage of the SDLC.

The benefits of Continuous Testing are listed below:

* Mitigates business risks.
* Improves code quality.
* Agile and reliable process.
* Provides test environment access with service virtualization.
* Maintains consistency through the same configuration for all the tests.

What is CodeStar in AWS DevOps?

CodeStar is one package that does a lot of things ranging from development to build operations to provisioning deploy methodologies for users on AWS. One single easy-to-use interface helps the users easily manage all of the activities involved in software development.

One of the noteworthy highlights is that it helps immensely in setting up a continuous delivery pipeline, thereby allowing developers to release code into production rapidly.

What is CodeDeploy in AWS DevOps?

CodeDeploy is the service that automates the process of deploying code to any instances, be it local servers or Amazon’s EC2 instances. It helps mainly in handling all of the complexity that is involved in updating the applications for release.

The direct advantage of CodeDeploy is its functionality that helps users rapidly release new builds and model features and avoid any sort of downtime during this process of deployment.

Can we build multiple jobs at a time using Jenkins?

Yes. we can build multiple jobs or projects at a time using a Jenkins plugin. After the parent job is implemented, other jobs are implemented automatically. A pipeline multibranch plugin is used for creating a job automatically.

List the top Jenkins plugins.

There are many useful plugins in Jenkins. Here, I have listed a few of the top plugins used in Jenkins.

* Dashboard view plugin
* Performance plugin
* Kubernetes plugin
* Amazon ECS Container Service
* Git plugin
* Monitoring plugin

What is CodePipeline in AWS DevOps?

CodePipeline is a service offered by AWS to provide continuous integration and continuous delivery services. Alongside this, it has provisions of infrastructure updates as well.
Operations such as building, testing, and deploying after every single build become very easy with the set release model protocols that are defined by a user. CodePipeline ensures that you can reliably deliver new software updates and features rapidly.

What can you say about antipatterns of DevOps?

A pattern is something that is most commonly followed by large masses of entities. If a pattern is adopted by an organization just because it is being followed by others without gauging the requirements of the organization, then it becomes an anti-pattern. Similarly, there are multiple myths surrounding DevOps which can contribute to antipatterns, they are:

* DevOps is a process and not a culture.
* DevOps is nothing but Agile.
* There should be a separate DevOps group.
* DevOps solves every problem.
* DevOps equates to developers running a production environment.
* DevOps follows Development-driven management
* DevOps does not focus much on development.
* As we are a unique organization, we don’t follow the masses and hence we won’t implement DevOps.
We don’t have the right set of people, hence we cant implement DevOps culture.

How is DevOps different than the Agile Methodology?

DevOps is a practice or a culture that allows the collaboration of the development team and the operations team to come together for successful product development. This involves making use of practices like continuous development, integration, testing, deployment, and monitoring of the SDLC cycle.

DevOps tries to reduce the gap between the developers and the operations team for the effective launch of the product.

Agile is nothing but a software development methodology that focuses on incremental, iterative, and rapid releases of software features by involving the customer by means of feedback. This methodology removes the gap between the requirement understanding of the clients and the developers.

DevOps and Cloud computing: What is the need?

Development and Operations are considered to be one single entity in the DevOps practice. This means that any form of Agile development, alongside Cloud Computing, will give it a straight-up advantage in scaling practices and creating strategies to bring about a change in business adaptability. If the cloud is considered to be a car, then DevOps would be its wheels.

How to move or copy Jenkins from one server to another?

There are multiple ways to copy or move Jenkins from one server to another:

1. Move a job from one installation of Jenkins to another by simply copying the corresponding job directory.
2. Make a copy of an existing job by making a clone of a job directory by a different name.
3. Rename an existing job by renaming a directory. Note that if you change a job name you will need to change any other job that tries to call the renamed job.

Explain the concept of branching in Git.

Suppose you are working on an application, and you want to add a new feature to the app. You can create a new branch and build the new feature on that branch.

* By default, you always work on the master branch

* The circles on the branch represent various commits made on the branch
* After you are done with all the changes, you can merge it with the master branch

What is Git stash?

A developer working with a current branch wants to switch to another branch to work on something else, but the developer doesn't want to commit changes to your unfinished work. The solution to this issue is Git stash. Git stash takes your modified tracked files and saves them on a stack of unfinished changes that you can reapply at any time.

What is the process for reverting a commit that has already been pushed and made public?

There are two ways that you can revert a commit:

1. Remove or fix the bad file in a new commit and push it to the remote repository. Then commit it to the remote . repository using:

git commit –m "commit message"

2. Create a new commit that undoes all the changes that were made in the bad commit. Use the following command:

git revert <commit id>
Example: git revert 56de0938f

How is a bare repository different from the standard way of initializing a Git repository?

Using the standard method:

git init

* You create a working directory with git init
* A .git subfolder is created with all the git-related revision history
Using the bare way

git init --bare

* It does not contain any working or checked out a copy of source files
* Bare repositories store git revision history in the root folder of your repository, instead of the .git subfolder

How do you push a file from your local system to the GitHub repository using Git?

First, connect the local repository to your remote repository:

git remote add origin [copied web address]

// Ex: git remote add origin https://github.com/Simplilearn-github/test.git

Second, push your file to the remote repository:

git push origin master

Explain the difference between a centralized and distributed version control system (VCS).

Centralized Version Control System

* All file versions are stored on a central server
* No developer has a copy of all files on a local system
* If the central server crashes, all data from the project will be lost

Distributed Control System

* Every developer has a copy of all versions of the code on their systems
* Enables team members to work offline and does not rely on a single location for backups
* There is no threat, even if the server crashes

Why Has DevOps Gained Prominence over the Last Few Years?

Before talking about the growing popularity of DevOps, discuss the current industry scenario. Begin with some examples of how big players such as Netflix and Facebook are investing in DevOps to automate and accelerate application deployment and how this has helped them grow their business. Using Facebook as an example, you would point to Facebook’s continuous deployment and code ownership models and how these have helped it scale up but ensure the quality of experience at the same time. Hundreds of lines of code are implemented without affecting quality, stability, and security.

Your next use case should be Netflix. This streaming and on-demand video company follow similar practices with fully automated processes and systems. Mention the user base of these two organizations: Facebook has 2 billion users while Netflix streams online content to more than 100 million users worldwide.

These are great examples of how DevOps can help organizations to ensure higher success rates for releases, reduce the lead time between bug fixes, streamline and continuous delivery through automation, and an overall reduction in manpower costs.

We will now look into the next set of DevOps Interview Questions that includes - Git, Selenium, Jenkins.

How is IaC implemented using AWS?

Start by talking about the age-old mechanisms of writing commands onto script files and testing them in a separate environment before deployment and how this approach is being replaced by IaC. Similar to the codes written for other services, with the help of AWS, IaC allows developers to write, test, and maintain infrastructure entities in a descriptive manner, using formats such as JSON or YAML. This enables easier development and faster deployment of infrastructure changes.

Explain the term "Infrastructure as Code" (IaC) as it relates to configuration management.

* Writing code to manage configuration, deployment, and automatic provisioning.
* Managing data centers with machine-readable definition files, rather than physical hardware configuration.
* Ensuring all your servers and other infrastructure components are provisioned consistently and effortlessly.
* Administering cloud computing environments, also known as infrastructure as a service (IaaS).

Name three important DevOps KPIs.

The three important KPIs are as follows:

* Meantime to failure recovery - This is the average time taken to recover from a failure.
* Deployment frequency - The frequency in which the deployment occurs.
* Percentage of failed deployments - The number of times the deployment fails.

What is Trunk-Based development?

A Trunk-Based development is a source control branching model for software development where developers associate on code in a single branch called trunk and employ documented techniques to create long-lived development branches. This process is called Trunk-Based development. It is a key enabler of continuous integration and by extension continuous delivery.

What’s the main purpose of Continuous Integration (CI)?

Continuous integration is a development practice of automating the integration of code changes from several contributors to a single software project. By regularly integrating, you can detect errors quickly and locate them easily. The source code version control is the crux of the CI process.

How does continuous monitoring help you maintain the entire architecture of the system?

Continuous monitoring in DevOps is a process of detecting, identifying, and reporting any faults or threats in the entire infrastructure of the system.

* Ensures that all services, applications, and resources are running on the servers properly.
* Monitors the status of servers and determines if applications are working correctly or not.
* Enables continuous audit, transaction inspection, and controlled monitoring.

What is a branching strategy in DevOps?

Branching is a technique employed for code isolation. In simple terms, it makes a copy of the source code to create two versions that are developed separately. There are various types of branching available. Therefore, the DevOps team must make a choice depending on application requirements. This choice is called a branching strategy.

What are the benefits of version control?

The primary benefits you can expect from a version control system are the following:

* Complete long-term change history of every file is available.

* All the past versions and variants are kept independent from each other inside the VCS through branching, and whenever required, you can merge back together with the file’s content to verify the changes.

What are the types of Version Control Systems?

Primarily there are three types of Version control systems they are:

* Local Version Control Systems
* Centralized Version Control Systems
* Distributed Version Control Systems

What is Continuous Integration (CI)?

Continuous Integration (CI) is a software development practice that makes sure developers integrate their code into a shared repository as and when they are done working on the feature. Each integration is verified by means of an automated build process that allows teams to detect problems in their code at a very early stage rather than finding them after the deployment.

What does CAMS stand for in DevOps?

CAMS stands for Culture, Automation, Measurement, and Sharing. It represents the core deeds of DevOps.

What is the importance of having configuration management in DevOps?

Configuration management (CM) helps the team in the automation of time-consuming and tedious tasks thereby enhancing the organization’s performance and agility.

It also helps in bringing consistency and improving the product development process by employing means of design streamlining, extensive documentation, control, and change implementation during various phases/releases of the project.

What is configuration management?

Configuration management (CM) is basically a practice of systematic handling of the changes in such a way that system does not lose its integrity over a period of time. This involves certain policies, techniques, procedures, and tools for evaluating change proposals, managing them, and tracking their progress along with maintaining appropriate documentation for the same.

CM helps in providing administrative and technical directions to the design and development of the appreciation.

What is the use of SSH?

SSH stands for Secure Shell and is an administrative protocol that lets users have access and control the remote servers over the Internet to work using the command line.

SSH is a secured encrypted version of the previously known Telnet which was unencrypted and not secure. This ensured that the communication with the remote server occurs in an encrypted form.

SSH also has a mechanism for remote user authentication, input communication between the client and the host, and sending the output back to the client.

What is VCS?

Version control systems are a kind of software tool which reports the changes in the code and integrates these changes with the existing code. As the developer makes changes in the code frequently, these types of tools are helpful in integrating the new code smoothly without disturbing the work of other team members. Along with integration, it will test the new code so that we can avoid the code leading to bugs)

Explain Nagios working?

Nagios runs on a server either as a background process or as a service. Nagios will run the plugins regularly with the help of the hosts or servers present in your Network. We can check the status information by using the web interface. It will execute the scripts based on a schedule.

What is the significance of NRPE in Nagios?

“Nagios Remote Plugin executor” popularly known as NERP enables us to execute the Nagios plugins remotely. With the help of this mechanism, we can check the performance parameters of the remote Machine.

What is AWS DevOps?

AWS facilitates essential services that help you implement DevOps at your company and that are built to use in collaboration with AWS. These services automate manual actions, help teams manage complex environments at scale, and keep engineers stable of the high velocity generated by DevOps.

What is the DevOps toolchain?

A stack of tools combine to form a DevOps toolchain, it automates the tasks like developing and deploying your application. DevOps can be performed manually with simple steps, but the need for automation quickly increases with the increase in its complexity, and toolchain automation is essential for continuous delivery. GitHub a Version Control Repository is the core component of a DevOps toolchain. More tools may contain backlog tracking, delivery pipelines, etc.

What is the DevOps toolchain?

* Enables management of and changes to multiple systems.

* Standardizes resource configurations, which in turn, manage IT infrastructure.

* It helps with the administration and management of multiple servers and maintains the integrity of the entire infrastructure.

List the key components of DevOps.

The following are the key components of DevOps:

* Continuous Integration
* Continuous Delivery
* Microservices
* Infrastructure as Code
* Monitoring and Logging
* Communication and Collaboration

What are DevOp's key performance indicators?

The following are the DevOps key performance indicators (KPIs):

* Deployment Frequency
* Deployment Failure
* Change Lead Time
* Change Volume
* Mean Time To Detection
* Mean Time Between Failures
* Mean Time To Recovery
* Change Failure Rate
* Efficiency
* Performance
* Pipeline Adoption

Which are the most popular DevOps tools?

The most popular DevOps tools are listed below:

Git: Version Control System tool
* Jenkins: Continuous Integration tool
* Docker: Containerization tool
* Puppet: Configuration Management and Deployment tools
* Ansible: Configuration Management and Deployment tool
* Nagios: Continuous Monitoring tool

How will you approach a project that needs to implement DevOps?

The following standard approaches can be used to implement DevOps in a specific project:

Stage 1

An assessment of the existing process and implementation for about two to three weeks to identify areas of improvement so that the team can create a road map for the implementation.

Stage 2

Create a proof of concept (PoC). Once it is accepted and approved, the team can start on the actual implementation and roll-out of the project plan.

Stage 3

The project is now ready for implementing DevOps by using version control/integration/testing/deployment/delivery and monitoring followed step by step.

By following the proper steps for version control, integration, testing, deployment, delivery, and monitoring, the project is now ready for DevOps implementation.

Mention some of the core benefits of DevOps.

The core benefits of DevOps are as follows:

Technical benefits

* Continuous software delivery

* Less complex problems to manage

* Early detection and faster correction of defects

Business benefits

* Faster delivery of features

* Stable operating environments

* Improved communication and collaboration between the teams

What are the different phases in DevOps?

The various phases of the DevOps lifecycle are as follows:

* Plan - Initially, there should be a plan for the type of application that needs to be developed. Getting a rough picture of the development process is always a good idea.
* Code - The application is coded as per the end-user requirements.
* Build - Build the application by integrating various codes formed in the previous steps.
* Test - This is the most crucial step of the application development. Test the application and rebuild, if necessary.
* Integrate - Multiple codes from different programmers are integrated into one.
* Deploy - Code is deployed into a cloud environment for further usage. It is ensured that any new changes do not affect the functioning of a high traffic website.
* Operate - Operations are performed on the code if required.
* Monitor - Application performance is monitored. Changes are made to meet the end-user requirements.

Which are some of the most popular DevOps tools?

The most popular DevOps tools include:

1. Selenium
2. Puppet
3. Chef
4. Git
5. Jenkins
6. Ansible
7. Docker

How is DevOps different from agile methodology?

DevOps is a culture that allows the development and the operations team to work together. This results in continuous development, testing, integration, deployment, and monitoring of the software throughout the lifecycle.

Agile is a software development methodology that focuses on iterative, incremental, small, and rapid releases of software, along with customer feedback. It addresses gaps and conflicts between the customer and developers.

What is DevOps?

DevOps can be defined as a combination of software development practices and tools used for increasing organizations' ability while delivering applications, services, and more in close alignment with business objectives.

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