Introduction of struts
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What's a Framework

A web application framework is a piece of structural software that provides automation of common tasks of the domain as well as a built-in architectural solution that can be easily inherited by applications implemented on the framework. A framework allows developers to focus only on coding the business logic and the presentation layer of the application and leave free from overhead jobs such as heavy code spec to capture user input or to generated drop down list boxes.

What is Jakarta Struts

Jakarta Struts is incredibly useful in helping you create excellent Web applications. Struts uses a specific paradigm, or design pattern, to structure your application. The design pattern is called Model-View-Controller (MVC).

A brief history of framework

Struts 2 is a second-generation web application framework that implements the Model-View Controller (MVC) design pattern. Struts 2 is built from the ground up on best practices and proven, community-accepted design patterns, also true in Struts 1 version. This was a critical step in the evolution of well-designed web applications, as it provided the infrastructure for easily achieving the MVC separation of concerns, which offers many benefits to the web application developer. Struts 1 have some limitation like weak and inflexible points in the framework wasn’t hard to accomplish. Then, struts 2 take advantage of these limitation and introduces several new architectural features that make the framework cleaner, strong and more flexible. These new architectural features includes-

  • interceptors for layering cross-cutting concerns away from action logic.
  • annotation-based configuration to eliminate or reduce XML configuration.
  • a powerful expression language.
  • Object-Graph Navigation Language(OGNL)
  • that transverses the entire framework;
  • a mini-MVC–based tag API that supports modifiable and reusable UI components.

Framework component --

Following component used into framework are-

  • Java Servlets -- Programs written in Java that reside on a Web server and respond to user requests.
  • JavaServer Pages -- Pages: A technology for generating Web pages with both static and dynamic content.
  • JavaBeans -- Components that follow specific rules, such as naming conventions
  • Business logic -- The code that implements the functionality or rules of your specific application
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