There are several terms that shows the testing module as follows:
- Verification and validation
- Project Management Quality Management
- Risk Management
- Configuration Management
- Cost Management
- Compatibility Management
Verification and validation are often used interchangeably but have different definitions. These differences are important to software testing.
"Verification is the process confirming that software meets its specifications".
"Validation is the process confirming that it meets the user’s requirements".
Verification can be conducted through Reviews. Quality reviews provides visibility into the development process throughout the software development life cycle, and help teams determine whether to continue development activity at various checkpoints or milestones in the process. They are conducted to identify defects in a product early in the life cycle.
In-process Reviews : They look at the product during a specific time period of life cycle, such as during the design activity. They are usually limited to a segment of a project, with the goal of identifying defects as work progresses, rather than at the close of a phase or even later, when they are more costly to correct.
Decision-point or phase-end Reviews: This type of review is helpful in determining whether to continue with planed activities or not. They are held at the end of each phase.
Post implementation Reviews: These reviews are held after implementation is complete to audit the process based on actual results. Post-implementation reviews are also know as “ Postmortems”, and are held to assess the success of the overall process after release and identify any opportunities for process improvements.
Informal or Peer Review: In this type of review generally a one-to one meeting between the author of a work product and a peer, initiated as a request for input regarding a particular artifact or problem. There is no agenda, and results are not formally reported. These reviews occur as need-based through each phase of a project.
Semiformal or Walkthrough Review: The author of the material being reviewed facilitates this. The participants are led through the material in one of the two formats: the presentation is made without interruptions and comments are made at the end, or comments are made throughout. Possible solutions for uncovered defects are not discussed during the review.
Formal or Inspection Review: An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough', typically with 3-8 people including a moderator, reader, and a recorder to take notes. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan, and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing, not to fix anything. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document; most problems will be found during this preparation.
The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. Thorough preparation for inspections is difficult, painstaking work, but is one of the most cost effective methods of ensuring quality.
- The product is reviewed, not the producer.
- Defects and issues are identified, not corrected.
- All members of the reviewing team are responsible for the results of the review.