C Programming language

Operators in C
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Assignment Operator(=)

The assignment operator assigns a value to a variable. There is two side in assignment operator :

  1. In assignment operator (=) left side value known as the lvalue (left value) contain variable.
  2. In assignment operator (=) right side value known as rvalue (right value) contain the value of that variable.

The in assignment operator (=) is variable has in lvalue and the value of that variable is depend in to the rvalue which may be either a variable, constant. The result of assignment operation any combination of these.


int a=10;

This statement assigns the integer value 10 to the variable a.

Arithmetic operators ( +, -, *, /, % )

The five arithmetical operations supported by the C language are:

SignName
+addition
- subtraction
*multiplication
/division
%modulo
Compound assignment (+=, -=, *=, /=, %=, >>=, <<=, &=, ^=, |=)

when want to change the current stored value of a variable by performing an operation we can use compoundassignment operators:

ExpressionEvaluation
value += increase;value = value + increase;
a -= 5;a = a - 5;
a /= b;a = a / b;
price *= units + 1;price = price * (units + 1)

Example


nt main ()
{
  int a, b=3;
  a = b;
 a+=10;// equivalent to a=a+10
 printf("\n%d",a );
 return 0;
}

Increase and decrease (++, --)

Shortening even more some expressions, the increase operator (++) and the decrease operator (--) increase

or

Reduce by one the value stored in a variable. They are equivalent to +=1 and to -=1, respectively. Thus:

1a++;
2a+=1;
3a=+1;
Relational and equality operators ( ==, !=, >, < >=, <= )

Between two expressions if evaluated for comparison C language provide relational and equality operators. The result of a relational operation is a Boolean value when compare two expression that can only be true or false, according to its Boolean result.

SignName
==Equal to
!=Not equal to
>Greater than
<Less than
>=Greater than or equal to
<=Less than or equal to
Logical Operator( && ,||,!)

&& OPERATOR

In this when both conditions true then the result is true other wise in each condition the result will be false.

ab a && b
truetruetrue
truefalsefalse
falsetruefalse
falsefalsefalse

|| OPERATOR

In this when both condition false then result false otherwise in each condition the result is true.

ab a || b
truetruetrue
truefalsetrue
falsetruetrue
falsefalsefalse
Conditional operator ( ? :)

The conditional operator evaluates an expression if the condition is true then return true value otherwise return the false value according to condition.


condition ? true: false
 // conditional operator
int main ()
{   
int a,b,c;
a=10;
 b=20;  
 c = (a>b) ? a : b;
 printf("\n%d",c );  
 return 0;
} 

In this example a was 10and b was 20, so the expression being evaluated (a>b) was not true, thus the first value specified after the question mark was discarded in favor of the second value (the one after the colon) which was b, with a value of 20.

[an error occurred while processing this directive]

Operators

Assignment  Operator(=)

The assignment operator assigns a value to a variable. There is two side in assignment operator :

  • In assignment operator (=) left side value  known as the lvalue (left value)  contain variable.

  • In assignment operator (=)  right side value known as rvalue (right value) contain the value of that variable.

 The  in assignment operator (=) is variable has in lvalue and the value of that variable is depend in to the rvalue  which  may be either a variable, constant. The result of assignment operation any combination of these.

int a=10;

This statement assigns the integer value 10 to the variable
a.

 Arithmetic operators ( +, -, *, /, % )

The five arithmetical operations supported by the C language are:
 

+

addition

-

subtraction

*

multiplication

/

division

%

modulo

Compound assignment (+=, -=, *=, /=, %=, >>=, <<=, &=, ^=, |=)

when want to change the current stored value of a variable by performing an operation we can use compound
 assignment operators:


expression

evaluation

value += increase;

value = value + increase;

a -= 5;

a = a - 5;

a /= b;

a = a / b;

price *= units + 1;

price = price * (units + 1)

Example:

int main ()
{
  int a, b=3;
 
a = b;
 a+=10;// equivalent to a=a+10
 printf("\n%d",a );
 
return 0;
}

Increase and decrease (++, --)

Shortening even more some expressions, the increase operator (++) and the decrease operator (--) increase or
 reduce by one the value stored in a variable. They are equivalent to
+=1 and to -=1, respectively. Thus:


1

a++;

2

a+=1;

3

a=+1;

Relational and equality operators ( ==, !=, >, < >=, <= )

 Between two expressions if evaluated for comparison C language provide relational and equality operators. The
 result of a relational operation is a Boolean value  when compare two expression  that can only be true or false,
 according to its Boolean result.

==

Equal to

!=

Not equal to

>

Greater than

<

Less than

>=

Greater than or equal to

<=

Less than or equal to

 

Logical Operator( && ,||,!)

&& OPERATOR

In this when both conditions true then the result is true other wise in each condition the result will be false.

a

b

a && b

true

true

true

true

false

false

false

true

false

false

false

false




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|| OPERATOR

In this when both condition false then result false otherwise in each condition the result is true.

a

b

a || b

true

true

true

true

false

true

false

true

true

false

false

false

Conditional operator ( ? :)

The conditional operator evaluates an expression if the condition is true then return true value otherwise return the
 false value according to condition.

condition ? true: false

   // conditional operator

 int main ()

{   

int a,b,c;

  a=10;

   b=20;  

 c = (a>b) ? a : b;

 printf("\n%d",c );  

 return 0;

}

In this example a was 10and b was 20, so the expression being evaluated (a>b) was not true, thus the first value specified after the question mark was discarded in favor of the second value (the one after the colon) which was b, with a value of 20.
Comma operator ( , )

The comma operator (,) is used to separate two or more expressions where only one expression is expected. When
 the set of expressions has to be evaluated for a value, only the rightmost expression is considered.

For example, the following code:

a = (b=30, b+20);

Would first assign the value 30 to b, and then assign b+20 to variable a. So, at the end, variable a would contain the value 50 while variable b would contain value 30.

Bitwise Operators ( &, |, ^, ~, <<, >> )


Bitwise operators modify variables or shifting the bit left or right patterns that represent the values they store.

operator

asm equivalent

description

&

AND

Bitwise AND

|

OR

Bitwise Inclusive OR

^

XOR

Bitwise Exclusive OR

~

NOT

Unary complement (bit inversion)

<<

SHL

Shift Left

>>

SHR

Shift Right

sizeof()

This operator will accept one parameter, which can be a variable itself and returns the size of it in bytes of that type or object.

a = sizeof (char);

This will assign the value 1 to a because char is a one-byte long type. The value returned by sizeof is a constant, so it is always determined before program execution.

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